About 1944 and the commemorative edition

Come learn about 1944; the world changed most dramatically.  This webpage also describes our book.  Our book attempts to bring a chronological semblance to an era of multi-dimensioned settings that transpired successively with each other at approximately the same time.  The author began his WW II research over 30 years ago.  Our author is Robert C. Valentine.  A very informative and important chronology of 1944 is below, just scroll down a bit.

  Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.

  The above is from The Life of Reason; or the Phases of Human Progress, a quote on the subject history plays, by George Santayana.  If humanity fails to learn from history, if one stays in an old rut and seeks neither innovations or in-depth nosing around, the matter of history turns stale, and not only boring, we fail to learn from our history.  It is much more than just sitting down and reading it fast, or as I saw my youngsters do with their history homework, go to the questions of the lesson, and quickly find what matches, and like some rat race go to the next and the next question, a sort of quick copy, grab, paste syndrome setting.  You think you will learn what history is all about that way?  That is learning history at it's most dismal.  The case of lives, civilizations, groups of people chills to a dum statistic.  With the power of computers, we can go beyond stale statistics. There is a difference between learning history and learning from it.  And, the history of the Second World War is no docile set of events. The setting is a world at war but the question to ask is how did it progress?; the spectrum of its flames covered Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, the Pacific, the Middle East, and the Americas.  On the plane of life, the tempo of war was everywhere, and honestly each year was very different from each other, with the cauldron boiling hot in 1944.  Progress, true progress, is a main theme of Valentine's researched volume on 1944 as his chapters guides a reader a connective, clear panorama.   The author Mr. Valentine, has added for you an interesting array of 1944 here, and displays just how hot it was in '44, especially with the 75th Anniversary months at hand.

   At one time, American veterans of the Second World War numbered 14 million who were whisked toward their rivers of destiny when they least expected it. As time passes, their numbers become fewer and fewer. Here are four, brief real life stories on those who were on Normandy, reported on BBC June 5 and  CNN June 2: Paul Martinez, Jack Gutman and Tom Rice. Two were paratroopers, both headed to Carentan, and in June of 1944 all three were still under 18 years of age.  AND followed by this 75th Anniversary from NBC Nightly News, the first of several honoring the commemoration.

An excellent book, accurate and to the point. My daughter is an avid collector of World War Two History and now has the book! I enjoyed the book immensely. Lt Colonel Burnett B Beach (Ret), WWII veteran ex 12th Arm Div, Los Osos, Calif

Having an extensive war library, I was only too glad to add this commemorative book, A Toast For You and Me, America's Participation for it depicts what took place on the fringes of the war and presents a solid over-all picture. Colonel Thomas D Gillis (Ret), Greenbrae, Calif

The Toast For You and Me book is an outstanding job---excellent pictures, good narrative and some behind the scenes stuff.   Lawrence A Bennett, WW II exThird Army veteran Sacramento, Calif

Table of Contents

St Lo, Saipan, D-Day, Philippines, 442nd, Liberation of Europe Paris GI Joe, the start of the Rocket Age

    Because 2019 marks the 75th Anniversary of various WW II events, and due to the fact that the Grand Normandy Invasion was something special and inspiring, the author has created for us a unique Chronology of 1944 in addition to describing the 1944 commemorative.  We welcome you to explore 1944. 

 

    We offer an hour-by-hour account of D-Day, June 6, 1944.   And, better yet, we would like you to take a look at our timeline of 1944, specifically a novelty; it is a marvelous audio-visual that takes you on a magical carpet ride divided into two parts, the early months and the main, powerful virtual day-by-day chronology, complete with scenes of American popular culture.  In terms of what is available to history buffs today...much has changed since the time when my dad, a WW II veteran and my brother and I visited Normandy, France, in 1994, and the world was awakening to the grand 50th Anniversary.  Historical information unavailable at that time is also presented here.   

    The spectrum of a modern world highlighting and describing WW II shows in many places on the net today, such as this song available on the Youtube platform, dealing with 1944, profiling the Swedish power metal band Sabaton.  Theme: the fight for freedom reflected in the Warsaw Uprising (4mins57 sec and the music is on target and great.) The reoccuring lyrics "voices from underground, whispers of freedom" is from an event that actually took place 75 summers ago; see the chronology below.  Or,  this combat footage in The Battle of Normandy, some of it was colorized. Great job, danke Nguyen. C-47s prep for Normandy’s 75th Anniversary. Or this wonderful song by Scott Miller on the Red Ball Express, released in Upside Downside, thanks Scott.    Find this classic: Is Paris Burning?  Netflix. Best Buy. Amazon. Ebay.  Frys.  Great movie.  If you are ever in VA, visit the D-Day Memorial in Bedford.  Students take time to raise money to send Veterans back to Normandy   If you are a history buff, perhaps these 2 links will also grab you.  Do not be grinded to dust by apathy.   Video Link on WW II History with Smithsonian  (26 mins).  Video Link on WW II History, the concept of WW II  (46 mins).

    The methods used in the publication of A Toast For You and Me, America's Participation, Sacrifice and Victory used state of the art programs called Pagemaker, Photoshop and both Illustrator and Freehand.  Pagemaker has a superb indexing feature.  It is not sold on the market anymore.  This entire site uses rare color photography—none are colorized, although it must be noted the power of color is a rich aid to the young.  To this, we find the panorama of today’s contemporary digital power as awesome.  We will relate some of the pioneering days that may bring a smile to you if you know computers.    Color photography in books in 1994 was rather like graduating from primary school when everything in books had to still go the route of making plates of film.  Using imagesetter film with expensive Matchprint proofs was the normal route.  It took a long time, in time and expense to produce a WW II history book with color photography compared to today.  The internet and low-cost digitization was really in its infancy and we have come a long way since 1994.

     If we go back to the first generation of color proofing systems that popped up in the early 1990s, we had 3M’s Matchprint.  Polychrome’s Chromeproof.  DuPont’s Cromalin.  They were the rage in inkjet technologies for maintaining proof quality consistency and color reproduction accuracy for the printing industry, which included book publishing.  Everything was PostScript 1 interpreter and I remember using a Mac computer (I had both a MAC Ci and MAC clone and a 286 PC).  The clone when it first came out was a big hit, and I bought a DayStar Digital MAC compatible around $2 grand with a cool tilting monitor--monitor made by Portrait Display Labs.  The tilting CRT monitor with 0.26-mm dot pitch itself cost $899. It was big, looked kind of like this but was a Pivot 1700, beige with a special swivel base and had chrome.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

     

The MAC was my top-of-the line workhorse with 8 Megbytes of RAM. Quad-speed drives were in the future.  Power MACS did not hit the market until around mid-decade.  CPU speed around 40MHz.  By around 1996, speeds hit the 166MHz with a Pentium chip.  To make it run like a rocketship we bought external accelerator cards, and that is how I got my MAC to speed up.  Sounds crazy, doesn’t it?  Today’s (as of 2019) home computer power can hit top speed at 3.4GHz with like some 700 million transistors.  MACS of the early 1990s era had between 2 and 3 million transistors. 

 

     My Hard Drive?  100Mb with big fat SCSI cables and an external CD drive, later upgraded to a CD-DVD (called a digital video disk, oooh wow), plus an 800 Mb data cartridge, later replaced with thermo-magneto technology for storage. I still have a SyQuest removable data cartridge (below).  

     

     This is not to say this monitor is a swivel.  This is only an approximation of how it looked.

   

     The very first data cartridges were produced by IBM, came out in 1984 so I am told, and had a maximum capacity of 200Mb. Compare a SyQuest cartridge with a regular small USB Flash Drive of today and you see what a big difference. The tiny USB drive holds more.  

   

     We used SCSI cables because our computer was SCSI-2 hard drive based. My MAC worked in 32-bit mode which was great for working with color pictures.  Many PC computers did not come out with 32-bit machines til around the year 2000.  Plug-and-play anything did not exist.  I did not need the internet to do my research.  There were many times when you tried to work on Photoshop and the computer told you not enough memory.  Rats, one had to start all over again. We had buttons on our MAC where we could “shift memory”.  How cool is that?  Or, how pioneering was that, if you want to say that.   USB technology was unveiled around 1995 and the rest is history.  

    

    The presentation of WW II on this site is for both history buffs and the youth of today who know very little about the subject of WW II.  75 years ago the whole world experienced a wonderful story in the pursuit of freedom and liberation.  A theme of inspiration.  The following PDF pages are from the beautiful commemorative book of 1944.  These PDFs are grouped and presented into a theme or a set of pages and are in low res. Some names you will recognize (and GI slang) such as the Rhineland, Ardennes, Burma, Saipan, Normandy, Cassino, S.O.S., F.D.R., ace-deucey, Stage Door Canteen, Liberators, combat fatigue, Ploesti, and Velletri.    Informative.  Excellent 1944 book.  The framework was very real 75 years ago and quite international-- four generations remember Britain's D-Day heroes (6 min video).

 

     Prior to the Normandy Invasion, you had to have good weather, good enough not perfect but good.  The build-up was from 1943 to Spring of 1944.  May of ’44 was the original landing target, but due to the fact that assembling the landing craft in numbers and their staging was far from complete, it was postponed until June. June 5th was the final secret date. [It was set by Gen. Eisenhower on May 17, 1944.]  What was out there before Operation Overlord?  Here is an interesting link from the Encyclopedia Britannica.

     The critical weather picture?  Ah, most history books only cover meteorology and D-Day by telling you about chief meteorologist Capt. James Martin Stagg, but there is more to the picture than that.  Americans were involved in that picture which is usually a forgotten picture. A behind-the-scenes look will be forthcoming later this year, like shall we say please stay tuned.  History tip: Colonel B Holzman. 

Third Army

in color

Saluti da Roma

Forgotten Pacific

Grand

D-Day Invasion

Glenn Miller and his orchestra  (press)

Captured German prisoners

Perhaps shrinking PDF pgs may help make it appear better.  PDF samples are low res. Actual book is superb.

St Lo

GIs & Freedom fighters

Mont St Michele

Liberation of Paris

Rockets and Jets

  What in the world happened 75 years ago?  Forthwith is a chronologic taste of 1944.  This is only a small sample.

This is part A.  The rest is below.  Please observe periodic updates, to reflect the passing of time, a 75th Anniversary feature.  The timeline of 1944 is presented with a unique audio-visual experience.  Each half month or so, the lower portion will be periodically updated--scroll down.

early 1944 Chronology

—1944 Part A—

1944 Chronology (cont)

—1944—

Mar 20 —Cover Girl premiered in Technicolor in Providence, RI; Long Ago was a big hit in '44, Jerome Kern's music, plus Ira Gershwin's lyrics.

Mar 22 —Medium bomb group base "is bombed by red hot cinders and lava clinkers" from Mt. Vesuvius--60 B-25s are damaged.  Billowing clouds of smoke and red glow are seen at Anzio, 100 miles north; scattered ashes fall from Naples to Bari, 117 miles away.  Holders of  "A"  coupons at home have their gasoline allotments cut to two gallons a week.  Target: Berlin: over 1,474 American aircraft participate; 147 Americans missing in action.

Mar 26 —Gen. Eisenhower approves plan to isolate the invasion area of Normandy by increasing air attacks on transportation system.  Over 500 8th A.F. bombers strike V-1 rocket sites in Cherbourg and Pas de Calais, France; 51 Americans missing in action. In a freak accident, while attacking a Japanese convoy off the Palau Islands, Tullibee is sunk by her own torpedo; C.W. Kuykendall was the sole survivor. 

Mar 27 —U.S. 8th bombs nine German airdromes in central and s.w. France, some targets almost to the Spanish border.  Escorted by Belgian and Czech Spitfires, U.S. 9th A.F. Marauders hit Pas de Calais.  

Mar 29 —76 RAF heavy bombers first-time night bomb railway yards of Paris-Vaires; rail traffic through Paris brought to a halt.

Mar 30 —U.S. aircraft carrier battle group Task Force 58 begins 3-day attack over Caroline Islands to support invasion of Hollandia; effectively all threats by enemy are ko-ed; TF-58 lost 20 aircraft, the Japanese lost over 120. For the first time in the Pacific, carrier-based aircraft lay naval mines during the strikes.  U.S. 93rd Inf Div. composed mainly of African Americans are attached to Americal Div. on Bougainville Is. and enter lines to gain experience.  U.S. Fifth A.F. conducts first daylight attack on Hollandia with both bombers and long-range fighter escort.  Over Germany, British encounter very heavy losses over Nuremberg—out of 800 bombers 107 are lost. Night-offensive for weeks thereafter is quietly curtailed.

Mar 30 —Hitler decrees that all German men be given training in rifle shooting.

Mar 31 —Unknown to most of the world the flying boat of Admiral Mineichi Koga, Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy, disappears over the Pacific and no bodies or wreckage ever found.    

Apr 1 —Attacks against Hitler's rail network in the Balkans begin to reach full tilt, by U.S. 15th A.F. and MTO R.A.F.  U-boat 218 lays mines off San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Apr 2 —Soviets enter Rumania—first time during the 1940s the Soviet Union steps on soil not claimed by Moscow.  Allied bomber forces plaster Daimler aircraft and ballbearing plants at Steyr, Austria, met by heavy fighter opposition and intense anti-aircraft fire. First B-29s land in Calcutta, India, after flying 11,530 miles via the Atlantic from Kansas.

Apr 3 —Disrupting major supply artery on the Eastern Front, 268 B-24s of U.S. 15th A.F. hit Budapest's railway yards, gateway to the Balkans.  U.S. Fifth A.F. conducts heavy air bombardment on Hollandia.  U.S. completes air campaign over Carolines, lose 26 planes but destroy 150 enemy aircraft.  British aircraft from carriers Victorious, Furious, Fencer, EmperorPursuer, and Searcher pound on German battleship Tirpitz in Norway badly damaging her at a cost of two planes.

An American in the RAF.   press

Apr 4 —U.S. 15th A.F. plasters the main railway yards at Bucharest, Rumania, stopping immense quantities of German war materials to the Eastern Front; U.S. lost 12 aircraft.

Apr 5 —Public telephone communications to all parts of Ireland and export of newspapers halted from Britain.  U.S. 15th A.F. drops 588 tons of bombs on Ploesti rail targets.  Although not admitted as such, this is the start of an oil offensive in which the U.S. 8th A.F. joins next month.   Indian troops fight their way to Imphal, Burma.

Apr 7 —German troops push Soviets back in the Crimea.

Apr 8 —611 U.S. 8th A.F. bombers and 780 fighter escort target central Germany, 363 Americans missing in action; 82 interceptors downed by fighter pilots.  Soviet forces open new offensive in the Crimea.

Apr 9 —U.S. 8th raids aircraft plants in the Eastern Front, at Poznain and Gdynia, Poland. 10 B-17 Flying Fortresses crash land in southern Sweden.  U.S. establishes radio station and message center at Salami Plantation, Los Negros, 3rd largest island of the Admiralty Islands; major airfield established. Theater of the mind: Mysterious Traveler, Beware Of Tomorrow, aired April 9, 1944.

Apr 10—First TV telecast of a movie "Patrolling the Ether" is televised simultaneously on WNBT of N.Y.C. and WRGB of Schenectady, NY.   Odessa, important Black Sea port, falls to Soviet troops.  Aircraft from escort carrier Guadacanal sink a u-boat off Madeira Island.

Apr 12The jungles of Admiralty Is. declared free of Japanese and the South-West Pacific secured for the Allies; 325 Americans killed and 1,189 wounded in the Admiralties; 3,280 Japanese killed. Two main Japanese bases at Rabaul and Kavieng of SW Pacif, with some 100,00 Japanese, bypassed; hundreds of prisoners of war freed but several hundred outside mainland Asia still captured including 'comfort women' part of over 100,000 sexual slaves in Japanese-occupied countries; Japanese and European women went to the officers, one story is of Jan Ruff-O’Herne, a young woman kidnapped by the Japanese; a small number of mixed Japanese-Papuan women on New Britain were still prisonersSisters of War based on Rod Miller's manuscript is about the true story of two Australian women who survived captivity by the Japanese, army nurse Lorna Whyte and Catholic nun Sister Berenice Twohill.  

Apr 13Both U.S. 9th A.F. under command of Gen. Lewis H. Brereton and RAF 2nd Tactical A.F. under command of Air Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham, start air offensive against Normandy coastal batteries.  The Memphis Belle released in Technicolor, directed by Major William Wyler. (He won an Academy Award for Best Director Mrs. Miniver released in 1942.  Wyler later did The Best Years of Our Lives, which also won Academies.)  Buffalo Bill premiered in Los Angeles in Technicolor.  Broadway Rhythm aka The Broadway Melody of 1944 released in Technicolor. 

Apr 14-15Allies bomb German rail targets in the Balkans.

Apr 16—U.S. 15th A.F. bombs Brasnov, giant railway center between Budapest and Bucharest at the foot of the Carpathians—1460 freight cars and 10 engines destroyed—Turnu Severin and Ploesti oil refineries.  In a night raid, R.A.F. Wellingtons bomb river port Severin, and Red Air Force bombs river port and rails at Galati, Rumania.  Soviet troops capture Yalta.

Apr 17—New directive issued by Gen. Eisenhower for air campaign: German Luftwaffe is #1.  German oil industry next on the list.  15th A.F. Fortresses and Liberators plaster rail yards and aircraft component factories in Belgrade.  All roads from the capital city of Bucharest are congested with civilian populace. Howard Hughes sets a new U.S. transcontinental speed record, with a Lockheed "Constellation."

Apr 19—Lend-Lease legislation extended by House of Representatives.  First time U.S. 8th A.F. drops leaflet-bombs over Norway. 

Apr 20—Free French 1st Motorized Div. lands at Naples, Italy.  U.S. convoy of 87 ships steams through Strait of Gibraltar and is attacked by U-boats and torpedo bombers; 3 vessels are sunk.  Turkey ceases exports of chrome to Nazi Germany.  A powerful British fleet attacks Sumatra.  Rumanian shipping companies halt traffic on the Danube due to aerial mines.

Apr 20-21—U.S.13th A.F. with secret night attack capabilities begin to land on Momote airfield, Admiralty Is.  RAF plaster the rail yards of Paris at La Chapelle with over 1,265 tons of bombs, 670 civilians killed; some 4,500 people were pulled out of the wreckage in Montmartre alive. 

Apr 21—U.S. Naval task force 58 joins land-based aircraft to bomb airfields and defenses at Hollandia, Wakde, Sawar, and Sarmit; attacks continue on Apr 22.  Seabees and aviation engineers complete airstrip at Mokerang Plantation, Manus Is.

Apr 22—U.S. 24th Inf Div. and 41st Inf Div. invade Hollandia region of New Guinea. 

In a London Times report in reply to allied demand for the cessation of the export of ball-bearings to Nazi Germany, Swedish Government refuses to stop export.

Apr 24—Britain announces a ban on most overseas travel effective April 28.  Friedschafen plants and airbases near Munich are bombed by over 200 8th A.F. B-17s; 14 bombers crash or land in Switzerland.  Rail yards at Bucharest and Belgrade-Ikarus aircraft factory in Serbia bombed by U.S. 15th A.F., most successful raid to date. 

Apr 25Pin Up Girl released in Technicolor.

Apr 26—Japanese sub I-180 sunk in North Pacific by U.S. destroyer escort Gilmore.  Four U.S. destroyers (Frost, Huse, Barber and Snowden) trap and sink U-boat U-488 in mid-Atlantic.

Apr 27U.S. 8th A.F. begins strategic offensive against transportation, striking first Blainville and Chalons-sur-Marne.  Captain Robert Powell, U.S. Army Photographic Interpreter in so. England detects and discovers camouflaged mobile launching ramps for new V-1 rockets.

Apr 28Nine German torpedo boats sneak into sector off Portland, England and attack American LSTs entering Lyme Bay, Slapton Sands while secretly rehearsing for the France invasion and sink LST-507 and LST-531, vehicles on deck were glowing on fire, LST-289 damaged; 749 men are confirmed killed. 

Apr 29Over 600 U.S. 8th A.F. bombers strike at Berlin; a shot-down B-24 crashes into a Volkswagen factory near Fallersleben; 55 heavies lost.  Subs Bang, Parche, Tinosa attack Japanes convoy off Luzon and sink cargo ship Takegawa Maru, and damage Yashima Maru.  Sub Pogy sinks Japanese sub I-183 off Cape Ashizuri, Japan.  British sub Tantalus sinks coaster Pulu Salanama in Strait of Malacca.

Apr 30—U.S. freighter William S. Thayer is torpedoed by U-boat in Arctic; 23 of 41 merchant seamen, 7 of the 28-man Armed Guard and 20 of 165 Soviet Navy passengers perish.  Gen. Douglas MacArthur states he would not accept the Republican nomination for Presidency.

An American kneeling beneath the stained glass memorial window of St. Andrew's Church, Quidenham, England, dedicated to the airmen who lost their lives in WW II.  Most of the 8th A.F. were in eastern England; in about 100 bases. Glenn Miller & his band were based in Bedfordshire.  A striking scene of N.Y.C, Times Square, 3,461 miles from London, 8,625 miles from Rabaul.  In grey camouflage is the Queen Mary. Once it left the harbor, she would sail on her own.  The convoys were too slow for her and she was a mighty tempting target.

Chronology of 1944 Continues

May 1 —U.S. carrier aircraft and battleships raid Ponape Island.  Over 100 8th A.F aircraft raid “Crossbow targets.”  Sub Bluegill sinks cargo ship Asosan Maru e. of Mindanao.

May 2 —U.S. troops secure Hollandia.

May 3 —One of the largest convoys in the Mediterranean, 107 merchantships, passes through the Strait of Gibraltar.  In union with all denominations nationwide, Mayor of Los Angeles authorizes a proclamation designating a day of prayer on day which the Allied forces start their impending invasion of Europe.  Jimmy Stewart awarded DFC for bravery over Brunswick on Feb. 10.  A portion of meat rationing is lifted in the U.S.  Spain agrees to restrict shipment of raw materials to Nazi Germany in return for U.S. govt. ending its embargo of oil shipments to Spain.  Sub Sand Lance sinks Japanese transport Kenan Maru off Saipan.  Sub Flasher sinks merchantship Teisen Maru in So. China Sea.  Sub Tinosa sinks merchantship Toyohi Maru off Formosa.  British sub Tantalus sinks army cargo ship Amagi Maru just south of Port Blair.  U.S. destroyer Donnell is torpedoed by U-boat off Cape Clear, Ireland, but survives.

May 5 —Ploesti plastered by 15th A.F. dropping over 1,250 tons.  Entire south coast of Holland declared by Germany forbidden to inhabitants in anticipation of Allied landings.  U.S. casualty list reported as 197,841, including 50,000 killed.  Sub Pogy sinks transport Shrine Maru off Japan.

May 6 —London announces 23 straight days that Allies conduct furious offensive over Axis-controlled Western Europe. First successful test flight of the Mitsubishi A7M1, will replace the famous Zero.  Sub Gurnard sinks troop-carrying cargo ships Aden Maru, Amatsuzan Maru, and Tajima Maru in the Celebes Sea.  In a unique close quarters fight, 390 miles w. of Cape Verde Islands, U-boat sailors and U.S. sailors of destroyer Buckley duke it out in hand-to-hand combat after destroyer rams the crippled U-boat unable to dive; U-boat had been earlier hit by planes from carrier Block island.  U.S. sends a ball-bearing expert to Sweden as part of economic warfare to have neutral countries cease trade with Nazi Germany.

May 7 —Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz is holding in readiness a mighty U-boat flotilla to slice Allied anticipated sea invasion, exclaims Radio Berlin.  Over 4,500 Allied warplanes shake the Axis-allied capitals of Berlin and Bucharest and other European targets in heaviest assault of the war to date, minimal German interception reported over Berlin.  NBC announces that in the post-war period, NBC will plan to give the American public network television.  U.S. Army reports that 181,618 war prisoners are at Home.  The British withdraw from Burma base at Bethedaung.  Sub Burrfish torpedoes and sinks Geman oil tanker Rossbach south of Murotosaki, Japan 

May 8 —Frank Sinatra admitted to Mt. Sinai Hospital, N.Y. for throat infection.  Top Secret:  Gen. Eisenhower sets D-Day Normandy Invasion for June 5. This is subsequently postponed to June 6. 

May 9 —From April 1 to date, an approximate total of 15,000 tons of bombs have been dropped on the Balkan rail system and air bases by 5,500 “heavies” at a cost of 123 bombers; 337 enemy planes destroyed.  From England, record breaking 5,000 Allied planes attack Berlin, Brunswick, and 29 German installations in France, Belgium, and Luxembourg; intensive fighter opposition encountered; 119 German aircraft downed, largest since April 11.  Sevastopol falls to Soviet forces. 

May 10 —German radar stations along the coast of France start to succumb to systematic Allied attack from England.  Sub Cod sinks destroyer Karukaya and transport Shohei Maru 150 miles n.w. of Manila.

May 11 —Offensive starts on Cassino; new tactics to outflank monastery zone and drive on Rome. U.S. moves under cover of heavy artillery.  Sub Crevalle rescues 28 women and children by evacuating them from Negros, Philippines.  Sub Sand Lance sinks transport Mitakesan Maru off Tinian.  Sub Sturgeon sinks cargo ship Seiryu Maru some 140 miles north of Chichi Jima.

May 12 —Over 800 U.S. 8th A.F. aircraft bombard synthetic oil refineries of Politz and Leuna and Zwickau, Bruex, Leutzkendorf, and Boehlen; damage at Bruex, Boehlen and Zeitz is so severe that the plants are temporarily put out of operation. U.S. loose 46 bombers of Eighth Air Force and 10 Allied fighters. Almost 200 enemy aircraft are claimed destroyed.   Today’s Nazi propaganda: A hand-picked German force of paratroopers are ready to invade Britain the moment the Allied invasion begins.  Cobra Woman released in Technicolor. 

May 13 —U.S. 5th Army gains slopes of Santa Maria Infante and then takes town.  British Eighth Army expands Rapido bridgehead.

May 16 —Paris radio announces French railway passenger service curtailed or suspended.

May 17 —Carrier-based planes of British Eastern Fleet attack Surabaya naval base, Java. B–24’s of SWPA follow up, night 17–18, with attack on docks. Vital Myitkyina airstrip captured by Marauder rangers and Chinese 89th Reg ordered flown in from Ledo as reinforcements.

May 18 —War news issued: Allies take Monte Cassino.  U.S. takes Wadke Is.  Last U-boat success in the Mediterranean Sea: U-453 sinks a 7147 ton convoy ship.  Ploesti is plastered.  

May 19 —Germans order withdrawal of troops south of the Liri. Destroyer escort England sinks Japanese sub I-16 145 miles n.e. of Guadalcanal.  James V. Forrestal becomes U.S. Secretary of the Navy.

May 20 —U.S.carrier planes begin 2-day assault of Marcus Is.  Sub Angler sinks Japanese transport Tori Maru. U.S. 14th A.F. B-24s attack Japanese convoy in So. China Sea south of Hong Kong and sink cargo ship Shinju Maru, damage Kori Maru and Tsukuba Maru.

May 21 —Specific Allied fighters begin Operation CHATATANOOGA CHOO-CHOO against German train movements in France-Germany.  Oiler Neches is damaged by a mine 630 miles west of Los Angeles, California.

May 23 —Paris announces French railway system is in chaos.  U.S. Fifth Army breaks out of Anzio, aided by Allied air interdiction operation. Destroyer escort England sinks Japanese sub R-104 250 miles from Kavieng, capital of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.

May 25-26 —U.S. troops occupy Cisterna and Velletri at the foot of the extinct volcanoes of the Albans, leaving the Sacco-Liri Valley.  Air combat over Europe, the difficulties on the Italian Front, and new Cadet Nurses from United News (about 9 mins). 

May 26 —Creating a deception for German spies, look alike British actor Meyrick Clifton-Jones poses as Gen. Montgomery and departs England for a 1000-mile journey to Gibraltar and Algeria, North Africa.

May 27 —Fierce fighting engulfs U.S. Fifth Army at Artena which fails to reach Highway #6 (Via Casilina).  British 8th Army crosses Liri R. occupies Ceprano.  All military and civilian mail impounded in England.

May 28 —U.S. 8th A.F. bombards central German oil targets.  This Happy Breed premieres in Technicolor in London.   U.S. 1st Arm Div halted at Campoleone RR station by fierce opposition.  36th holds below Velletri.  British 8th Army takes command of U.S. 3rd Inf Div.  It Happened Tomorrow released.  

May 29 —Block Island torpedoed by U-boat 549 near the Azores and sinks, 674 sailors rescued from the stricken escort aircraft carrier and taken to Casablanca; destroyers Ahrens and Eugene E. Elmore hunt U-boat and sink her. U.S. 8th A.F. strikes 5 FW and 2 Messerschmitt plants in E. Germany and Poland.  Airborne German paratroopers capture Yugoslavian base at Drvar; Marshal Tito and Maj. Randolph Churchill, son of Winston Churchill, barely escape.  Japanese use tanks for the first time in the S.W. Pacific to try to dislodge U.S. on Biak, e. of Parai and suffer high losses.  U.S. 36th Inf Div begins sneaky night march on Mt. Artemisio; mountains are illuminated by German artillery but no one is spotted.  

May 30 —On this date seventy-five years ago, there are 1,526,965 Americans in Britain.  Tight security mandated on all Allied troops, no passes or leaves.  In man's entire history there has never been a greater combined air, sea and land operation.  All Allied advances in Italy halted by German resistance, the U.S. checked at Albano, Velletri, Lanuvio, and Artena; the British checked at Arce-Ceprano; the French around Lepini.  Out in Italy they played this folk song, the D-Day Dodgers.

May 31 —U.S 36th Inf Div seizes radio outpost near Monte Artemisio at dawn—catching German commander by surprise taking a bath.  It was a key enemy observation post.  Hermann Goering combat div counterattacks but 36th holds.  U.S. engineer units follow to carve a road out of a dusty farm track, to help pierce the Caesare Line;  overall Germany lost 2,700 vehicles in last 5 days with 4,838 prisoners.  Warm and sunny over southern England and much of NW Europe. (Below) Devastated Cassino in rare color. 

   Before the Normandy invasion, how many German trains met their demise?  The air assault on the German transport infrastructure barely began to reach full tilt in early Spring.  B-26 Martin Marauders in action after 45 secs. These airplanes were not dreams.  The planes in the ETO had all sorts of names, and they were real in '44 with young pilots and crews who braved it all--Havocs, Maurauders, Liberators, Flying Fortresses, Lightnings, Thunderbolts, Mustangs, Skytrains (actual C-47 mass take off June 6, 2019) and later in the war the Black Widows and Invaders.   

   Check out the great, big Normandy invasion of France.  It started with help from the Fr. Resistance.  An hour-by-hour account of D-Day, June 6, 1944.  

    A best-kept-secret of some 75 years ago.

    Cartoon that appeared in Yank magazine read: I don't suppose you know where the Post Office is?

     Above 2 pictures, GI's in Great Britain.  In color, they await the Normandy invasion at one of the myriad ports of embarkation, either late May or early June 1944.   Americans swelled the UK in 1944, whereby in Jan. there were some 750,000 Yanks, the numbers were not 100,000 more or 500,000 but over 1,500,000 in the subsequent five months with a build-up rate of 750,000 tons of supplies a month.  1944 and 1945 would actually be the last two years of WW II.  And, here are 2 educational clipsa preview of what was seen when people were freed from the horrific concentration camps, and Leo Bretholz recounts his daring leap off a train destined for Auschwitz.

     Ten things you might not know about D-Day from the BBC. 

     In 1944, tens of thousands of Americans headed into the unknown, the greatest number in any war year, each entering his or her own spine tingling tale.  After undergoing training, and bundled with others, many got a closer look at the actual war picture and the putrid smells, and relearned the laws of survival.  Whether it be on the ground, at sea or in the air (silent), you never knew what would happen, but you did your best, a major theme in 1944.  Sometime in June, we should have ordering information and forms available to order any of the books by Mr. Robert Valentine.  Correction, books are now available. 

Super Chronology Continues

Jun 1944, Liberation is but a footstep away but it will come at a cost

Jun 1 —Lt. Gen. Mark Clark regroups all forces and initiates new power play but U.S. 34th Inf Div gains little ground near Lanuvio.  U.S. 36th Inf Div captures Velletri.  U.S. 45th and Br 1st Div unable to block escape of enemy to the east.  Canadian 1 Corps moves up Route 6 toward Rome, reaches Ferentino.

Jun 2 —First Allied shuttle mission (130 Bombers and 70 escorts) from Italy to the Ukraine is conducted, bombing rail yards in Hungary; the three new American bases are at Poltava, Morgorod, and Piryatin.  U.S. 36th Inf Div advances and reaches Highway #7 before dawn.   German 14th Army begins big withdrawal on Italian lines in the night.  U.S. 3rd Inf Div takes Valmontone.  U.S. 34th Inf Div enters Lanuvio, night of Jun 2-3.  Algerian and Moroccan troops secure Lepini Mtns.  U.S. 45th stymied at Albano.  Formal siege of Myitkyina airfield begins on the China-Burma-India Front (C-B-I), with Chinese tunneling towards enemy.  Raining furiously in England.  Persian Gulf Command U.S. assistance for the other side of the world:

   

audio, supply line to Russian Front

via the Persian Gulf Command

Jun 3 —OPA begins investigation of hotel over-pricing violations nationwide.  A message at 4:39 p.m. slips out to U.S. and Latin American hemispheres on an AP teletype from London: Flash! Eisenhower’s headquarters announces Allied landings in France (it is false news.)  But Moscow repeated it.  So did CBS.  About 23 minutes elapsed before corrected.  Over 1000 Allied bombers raid Calais, Boulogne, the Chartres airport and n.w. France by daylight. Colonel Krick and Colonel Holzman present their forecast to Group Captain Stagg there would be operational weather conditions beginning June 4, the British disbelief them.  U.S. 34th Inf Div captures Lanuvio and seizes road juncture on Albano.  U.S. 36th Inf Div captures Nemi and road e. of Lake Albano.  U.S. 88th and 85th Inf Divs drive west toward Frascati.  1st Special Service Force (U.S. and Canadian combined special team) progresses up Highway #6.  3rd Algerian Div advances up Hwy #6.  British 8th Army captures Anagni.

Jun 4 —All through Sunday, June 4, the weather over England was terrifying as a wild storm tossed the waters and the rain fell and the winds grew in fury.  Rome falls to the Allies, and is the first European war capital liberated by the Allies.   Gen. Clark designates U.S. 3rd Inf Div to garrison Eternal City as 5th Army reserve; British 1st Bn, the Duke of Wellington’s Regt  also to garrison duty.  U.S. 1st Arm Div drives up Hwy #7 into Rome.  U.S. 36th Inf Div advances into e. suburbs of big capital.  1st Special Service Force captures Tiber bridges n. of Ponte Margherita.  U.S. 85th  drives on Via Tuscolana takes Ponte Cavour.  The Spring offensive in Italy had cost the U.S. Fifth Army close to 30,000 men and the Allies 21,000; the Germans some 38,000 men.  On initiative action by Capt. Daniel Gallery on board the USS Guadalcanal, U-505 is captured 150 miles west of Cape Blanco, French West Africa, U-505’s codebooks and an enigma are captured; the U-boat is the only one captured by a U.S. vessel in WW II.  The capture of the U-505 was one of the best kept secrets of WW II.  General Eisenhower postpones D-Day by 24 hours; weather over England super bad.   ETO press release proclaims the oil offensive publicly.  Population of Rome is liberated and it is big news until 2 days later.  Do you know about Windy City Kitty?

Jun 5 —4:15 AM the house was shaking. Terrible weather.  Capt. Stagg told Ike we would have a little space of good weather to last between 24 and 36 hrs.  Gen. Ike gives the green light for invasion.  Gen. George C. Marshall receives the Order of Suvorov, First Class, of the Soviet Union.  B-29’s fly from China and bomb Bangkok, Thailand in force.  On Salween front, 20,000 troops of Chinese 71st Army cross Salween R. U.S. sub Shark sinks troop transport Takaoka Maru and freighter Tamahine Maru off Marianas.  U.S. 5th Army gets most assault forces across the Tiber R.  Gen. Alexander orders vigorous pursuit of Germans to Rimini-Pisa.

Jun 6 —Allied Armies storm the Normandy beaches on D-Day.  D-Day French history news report.  Off Marianas, U.S. sub Pintado sinks cargo ship Kashimasan Maru and transport Havre Maru and U.S. sub Harder sinks destroyer Minazuki.  Through the darkest nights, in the pages of time, in ports, big cities, the villages and towns, the plains, the valleys—the youth of today may not be particularly struck by the immensity of peoples and lands still enveloped in evil but 75 years ago.  It was so precarious, at any time, the dreaded Gestapo (secret police) could break into your privacy and haul you away.  With the snap of a finger!  Darkest nights covered a range of countries: Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, northern Italy, Poland, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Greece, Czechoslovakia, and of course, Germany before June of 1944.  Far from home, a breeze, nevertheless,  a glimmer of hope, emanated on the continent behind many curtains, customs and languages—the breeze of freedom. 

Jun 7 —Construction of artificial harbors and shelter anchorages begins off Normandy coast. Prior to D-Day, some 46 submarines waited in Bay of Biscay pens to attack the Allied invasion fleet. U-boats were unsuitable for combat in the relatively shallow Channel; of the 36 U-boats that set off for the invasion area when the landings began, only nine were equipped with snorkels, extendable tubes that allowed a U-boat to operate her diesel engines and recharge her batteries while submerged. The boats without the breathing gear had to periodically surface and as a result were quickly spotted, attacked and at the mercy of Allied surface and air patrols.  American troops expand from Quineville-Montebourg and Ste. Mère-Église, in the ladder throw back major German counterattack. British forces overrun Bayeux. U.S. 82nd violently counterattacked at La Fire bridge on Merderet R.  U.S. 5th Army captures Civitavecchia and vital port.  Off Normandy coast: Minesweeper Tide sinks due to a mine; U.S. transport Susan B. Anthony sinks due to a mine; U.S. cargo ship Francis Harrington damaged by a mine. The Story of Dr. Wassell released in Technicolor in both NYC and Los Angeles.   U.S. sub Harder sinks Japanese destroyer Hayanami off Tawi Tawi.  U.S. sub Whale damages two transports trying to reinforce Marianas. (Below) Air Force flyboys were crucial in protecting D-Day.  Prayer service on Normandy caught on filmthere were no atheists at the Front.  Gen. Eisenhower came ashore on Normandy.

Jun 8 —American and British troops make contact and link at Port-en-Bessin. The two U.S. beaches link up at Isigny.  John MacVane, NBC tried a broadcast from Omaha Beach, timing it to coincide with NBC’s morning broadcast. Everybody in the NBC London office was surprised by his report from the Front. One of the censors Roy Trouncer exclaimed, “We’re getting John from the beachhead. It’s coming in fine”, and it was sent to an army transmitter. A big U.S. Army relay transmitter was located in London. It was to pick up official transmissions from the BBC, and CBS and NBC affiliates and boost them them on to the networks in New York. But the first broadcast from Normandy was not to be.  Army Signal Corps officials in London stopped the re-transmittal because it was not official. Nobody outside the BBC and the Army Signal Corps ever heard it.  Luftwaffe conducts small raid over Britain; the first since D-Day.  Off Normandy, a German Heinkel He.177 badly damages U.S. destroyer USS Meredith; it breaks in half and sinks the next day.  U.S. sub Hake sinks Japanese destroyer 20 miles sw. of Cape San Augustin, Mindanao.  U.S. sub Rasher sinks Shioya in Celebes Sea.   U.S. sub Swordfish sinks destroyer Matsukaze off Chichi Jima.  U.S. sub Harder sinks destroyer Tanikaze in Sibitu Passage. 

Jun 9 —Allied air forces operate from France.  U.S. First Army makes significant progress on drive for port of Cherbourg.  Chinese 71st Army begins attack in Lung-ling.

Jun 10 —82nd Airborne captures Mentebourg rail station. Germans still hold Carentan but U.S. 101 Airborne moves in for the kill.  U.S. reach St-Lô Bayeux highway.  U.S. 9th Inf Div lands on Normandy.  U.S. resupplies Chinese by air at Lung-ling.   46 P-38 Lightnings of U.S. 15th A.F. conduct daring long-range attack on Ploesti; and destroy 23 enemy aircraft but lost 22 P-38s.   German Luftwaffe conducts surprise raid on U.S. shipping off Anzio damage freighter Tarleton Brown, minesweeper Symbol, LST-211 and LCI-41.  Soviet 21st Army attacks Finland.  Secret test flight of P-80 jet in California, can attain speed of 580 mph at an altitude of 39,300 ft.   SS Division (Das Reich) burns entire French village of Oradour-sur-Glane locking 642 inhabitants in barns and the church and roasting them alive; entire village never rebuilt, forever standing as a silent monument to Nazi atrocities

Jun 11 —U.S. 36th Inf Div advances 65 miles n. of Rome. U-boat U-490 is sunk in the South Atlantic by planes of U.S. carrier Croatan and her destroyer group, entire German crew is captured.  U.S. naval aircraft strike enemy airbases on Marianas; U.S. lost 12 aircraft of 225; Japanese lost between 147 to 215 planes.  Japanese attack in strength across Liuyang R. in China.  U.S. sub Redfin sinks tanker Asanagi Maru w. of Jolo.   U.S. sub Barb sinks Chihaya Maru and Toten Maru in Sea of Okhotsk.  U.S. battleships off Normandy pound Carentan in support of taking town.  6 German PT boats sneak in, cause havoc and sink LST-496, tug Partridge and damage LST-538 and destroyer Nelson off Normandy.

Jun 12 —Destructive fire rains on Carentan night of 11-12; Germans abandon town. U.S. soldiers secure Carentan.  Senate passes a modified “GI Bill” costing an estimated $3 to 6.5 billion. The third wave of U.S. Army divisions are largely ashore on Normandy.  U.S. sinks 16 Japanese ships off the Mariana Islands.  British sub HMS Stoic sinks transport Kainan Maru off Siam. 

Jun 13 —First V-1 (rocket) fired against England. A V-2 Rocket prematurely is launched by Germans, hitting countryside n. of Kalmar, Sweden.  British government purchases the wreckage.  Part of U.S. 1st Army drives to Cherbourg; rest of army halts southward attack. 101st and 2nd Armor Divisions heroically defend Carentz and Carentan-Périers highway.  Liberty ships operate from the port of Rome.  Just n. of Borneo, a Japanese naval armada pulls out of the heavily guarded port of Tawi Tawi, including 4 battleships and 6 prized carriers, for a “decisive naval battle” with the U.S.  U.S. carriers continue attacks on air fields on Saipan and Tinian; minimal opposition while battleships and destroyers bombard those islands for 2 days.  Vilno is liberated, becoming the second European capital to be free.  Joint Chiefs in Washington ask both MacArthur and Nimitz to bypass Philippines and Formosa, who answered back no way—Philippine people must be liberated.  U.S. sub Barb sinks army transport Takashim Maru in Sea of Okhotsk.

Jun 14-15 —During the night, Flight Lt. J.G. Musgrave of 605 Squadron is the first pilot to shoot down a V-1 over the English Channel; he flew a Mosquito. 

Jun 15 —Invasion fleet strikes at the Marianas, 1,350 miles from Tokyo and 5,000 miles from San Francisco.  A colossal number of ships including 67 destroyers, 22 cruisers, seven new battleships--each named after a state: Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Dakota, and the Washington, protect troop transports carrying U.S. Marines from the 1st Brigade, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Marine Divisions plus the 27th Inf Division; 375,000 Americans in all; island of Saipan invaded, marking 1st large and heavily defended land mass in the central Pacific assaulted.  All protected by a dozen baby flattops plus 8 light class carriers: Belleau Wood, Cabot, Cowpens, Langley, Monterrey, Princeton, San Jacinto PLUS the pride of the Pacific Fleet 7 heavy “Essex” class carriers: Bunker Hill, Enterprise, Essex, Hornet (II), Lexington (II), Wasp (II) and the Yorktown.  By dusk, 20,000 Americans were on Saipan Is.  B-29’s  make first attack on Japanese homeland, dropping  221 tons on Yawata Imperial Works in modern-day Kitakyushu; the first raid since Doolittle.  Jeep carrier Solomons sinks U-860 in South Atlantic. German V-1 terror campaign begins; in first 24-hours 244 fly toward British shores.  Translation: the Axis are not going to fold over and quit.  RAF hit patrol boat base in Boulogne, France eliminating once-and-for-all all enemy threats to Normandy shipping.

Jun 16 —Oil refineries around Vienna are bombed by 658 U.S. Liberators; 14 lost.   The incomplete Italian aircraft carrier Aquila damaged by Allied air raid on Genoa.

Jun 17—U.S. 1st Army breaks to the w. coast of Cherbourg.  Hitler refuses demand by Gen. Rommel to evacuate the peninsula of Cherbourg.  U.S-Allied ships land Free French troops on Elba.  Daredevil ace 1st Lt. William Y. “Willie” Anderson of the 356th Fighter Sq shoots down a V-1; first U.S. pilot to record a V-1 kill; assigned to U.S. 9th A.F., 354th FG; born in Sweden; once flew through the Eiffel Tower in Paris; decorated with 30 medals. PB4Y-1 sinks Japanese sub RO-117.  U.S. Hake sinks transport Kinshu Mari off Davao.  Escort carrier Fanshaw Bay hit by Japanese bomber off Marianas but survives.    Adm. Spruance postpones Guam invasion after a report via submarine Cavalla, 15 or more enemy ships sighted some 780 miles west of Saipan, a naval battle appears imminent. The government of Iceland cuts its ties with the Danish throne and established an independent republic. 

Mulberry before the storm.

Jun 19—U.S. soldiers secure Bricquebec.  Violent storm with high winds begins to lash out at Normandy coast (above).  The worst storm in forty years.  Drums of war beat high in the air over the Marianas, U.S. carrier planes engage huge force of aircraft from Japanese carriers, known as The Battle of the Philippine Sea— Battleships South Dakota and Indiana hit and damaged.

Jun 20—1,361 bombers and 729 escorts of the U.S. 8th A.F. attack oil targets in Hamburg-Harburg-Ostermoor-Misburg-Politz-Magdeburg, the missions are very successful; 48 heavies downed. All German Air Forces placed under control of Albert Speer.  Vicious storm continues to pound Normandy.  Final phase of air Battle of the Philippine Sea:  U.S. finds enemy carriers well w. of Saipan;  U.S. sub Cavallo sinks Japanese carrier Shokaku, U.S. sub Albacore sinks Japanese carrier Taiho; Japanese carrier Hiyo sunk by U.S. aircraft, 2 Japanese destroyers sunk, and a battleship, 3 cruisers, 1 destroyer damaged; U.S. looses 130 aircraft; 73 are lost because they cannot locate carriers or run out of fuel; in the end, Japanese lost, counting shore-based aircraft,  over 544 aircraft.  U.S. aircraft from carrier Suwannee sink Japanese sub I-184  20 miles s. of Guam.  Cherbourg is besieged. Valonges is liberated by U.S. troops.  British fly jet fighter (Meteor) to intercept German V-1’s over London.

Jun 21—U.S. 8th A.F. devastates oil refinery at Ruhland, s. of Berlin; 114 B-17s and 70 P-51s fly on to Soviet bases.  Night attack on base at Poltava by Luftwaffe.   Two Coast Guard cutters sink in vicious Normandy storm.

Jun 22—Operation Zebra: B-17s make special drop of 2,077 containers of arms and supplies to FFI (French Resistance).  Luftwaffe inflicts a surprise raid on First U.S. shuttle-bombing airbase, (Ukraine from U.K.) resulting in 47 U.S. aircraft destroyed and 29 damaged.  Cherbourg is bombed by 1000 bombers.  F.D.R. signs the “GI Bill” into law.

Jun 23—Storm abates at Normandy; unloading resumes.  Outer defenses of Cherbourg penetrated.  U.S. Hellcats and Helldivers bomb Iwo Jima; loose 5; 66 Japanese aircraft destroyed.

Jun 24—In the vicinity of the Azores, 2,564 ton Japanese sub I-52 is sunk by carrier aircraft of Bogue. Soviet summer offensive begins.  First C-46 supply transports land on Saipan.  U.S. sub Tang torpedoes Tomahoku Maru, unbeknownst was carrying 772 Australian, British and American prisoners; 560 dead.  Japanese planes attack U.S. shipping off Saipan in the night, damage 4 vessels.

Jun 26—U.S. 8th A.F. bombs oil plant at Drohobyez, Poland from its base in the USSR and flies to Italy; the 8th remains in Italy long enough to fly a mission with the 15th A.F. over Italy. Garrison commander of Cherbourg surrenders.

Jun 27—As of date, 31 Allied air squadrons are operating from the Normandy-beach areas.  Port of Cherbourg captured; 25,000 prisoners captured.  Bathing Beauty (aka The Co-Ed) premieres in Technicolor in NYC. 

Jun 28—Thomas Dewey and John Bricker acquire the nominations for President and Vice-President at the Republican convention held in Chicago.  Second White Russian troops take Mogilev, just outside Minsk.

Jun 29—American Red Cross announces development of a serum to prevent measles. Generals Rommel and von Rundstedt propose a secret withdrawal from Normandy, Hitler refuses.  U.S. sub Sturgeon torpedoes Japanese troop transport Toyama Maru, death toll 5,400.

Jun 30—The U.S. Army Air Force reaches a peak strength of 78,757 aircraft, becoming the largest air force in the world.  Roosevelt signs the congressional resolution granting the Philippines independence as soon as the Japanese are ejected. A total of 452,450 Allied troops have come ashore at Normandy. A total of 570 ships and 180 troop transports have reached Normandy assault area in supply convoys to date. 101st Airborne relieves 4th Inf at Cherbourg.  Transporting Japanese troops from Korea to Japan, Nikkin Maru (former American-built Golden West) is sunk by U.S. sub Tang in Yellow Sea, death toll exceeds 3000.

July 1-22—Representatives from 44 countries participated in the planning process of the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference meeting in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to plan for the post-war international financial system and presented the proposals to their home governments for approval.  Delegates proposed the creation of the International Monetary Fund, with a net credit of $8.8 billion, to help stabilize national currencies after the war, and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (later called the World Bank) with $10 billion.

July 2—Budapest bombed by 712 U.S. heavies. Von Rundstedt resigns command of German forces in France. Ensign Frederick L. Moore from the carrier Wake Island sinks U-543 in S. Atlantic at night.  Japanese sub I-8 torpedoes Liberty ship Jean Nicolet sailing from San Pedro, Calif; the crew abandons ship 900 miles s. of Ceylon but survivors were ordered to swim to sub, and on board some were beaten, others bayoneted before pushed overboard; a British B-24 approaches and sub dives with about 30 men still tied to the deck who drown.

July 3—In driving rain. U.S. First Army opens new offensive in Normandy, France; the rain prevents air support. Russians capture Minsk.

July 4—In preparation for secret invasion of S. France, U.S. 7th Army begins movement to port of Naples.  U.S. 1st Arm Div gains ground over Casole d’Elsa with 442nd.  Submarine Seahorse torpedoes and sinks army cargo ship Gy_y_ Maru, cargo ship No.28 Ky_d_ Maru, and merchant cargo ship Nitt_ Maru about 140 miles south of Hong Kong.  Submarine Guavina sinks Japanese transport Tama Maru 60 miles northwest of Palau.  Submarine Tang sinks Japanese merchant cargo ships Asukasan Maru and Yamaoka Maru off the west coast of Korea.  Destroyers David W. Taylor and Riddle sink Japanese submarine I-10, attempting an evacuation mission to Saipan.  Indian Navy trawler Hoxa rescues 23 survivors (from a crew of 100) of Jean Nicolet and taken to Addu Atoll.   Garapan is liberated: 2nd Mar. Div completes take over of Garapan, the largest town in Saipan.

July 5—The millionth Allied soldier disembarks on French soil.

July 7—One of the wildest, largest Banzai charge ever recorded on earth took place on Saipan Is complete with flashing Samurai swords; over 2,300 Japanese met their death. 1,129 bombers and over 700 escorts of the U.S. 8th A.F. attack targets in Leipzig, the mission is costly, 280 Americans missing in action. U.S. forces cross the River Vire, seven miles n.w. from St. Lô.  Over 600,000 tons of supplies have been landed with 171,000 vehicles since D-Day; German opposition still formidable.

July 8—Hitler issues secret directive that Allies will try to invade the Pas-de-Calais area. Swordfish aircraft from the British Merchant Aircraft Carrier MV Empire MacCallum mistakenly sink the Free French submarine La Perle.  Submarine chaser SC-1299 rescues 18 survivors from U.S. tanker Esso Harrisburg, sunk by German submarine U-516 on July 6 in the Caribbean. Dutch escort vessel Queen Wilhelmina rescues another 31 Esso Harrisburg survivors that same day.  LST-312 and LST-384 are damaged by V-1 rocket-bombs while moored at Naval Advance Amphibious Base, Deptford, England.  U.S. sub Tautog sinks Japanese army cargo ship Matsu Maru off Honshu.

July 9—Saipan is declared secure by the Allies but news that it fell was not released in Japan til July 18.  Caen is secured by British and Canadian troops.  B-25s of U.S. 5th A.F. sink Japanese cargo vessel Oyashima Maru near Halmahera Island. Submarine Sunfish attacks Japanese convoy in the Kurils, sinks army cargo ship Taihei Maru north of Araito Island.

July 11—The Roosevelt administration officially recognized the French Committee of National Liberation under the leadership of General Charles De Gaulle as the de facto government of France in all of the liberated areas of that country. Gen. Ike warned the Germans that French underground forces should be recognized as combatants under the protection of international law.  Japanese merchant cargo ship Senyo Maru is sunk by U.S. aircraft, in Yangtze River, China.  U.S. Sealion, in the Yellow Sea off the west coast of Korea, near Shosei Jima, sinks Japanese merchant cargo ships No.2 Taiun Maru and No.2 Tsukushi Maru.  U.S. and Allied forces still stymied in Normandy, France.  From the NET Television production of "All Hell Can't Stop Us," thank you NetNebraska.

July 13—German resistance around Brody, Ukraine falls; 17,000 Germans are captured, 25,000 killed. American B-25s attack Japanese cargo ships off Halmahera, sinking T_kai Maru and damaging Taimei Maru.   U.S. sub Cobia sinks cargo ship Taishi Maru some 190 miles n.w. of Chichi Jima, Bonins; among cargo lost on board Taishi Maru are 28 tanks. Vilna taken by Soviets. British submarine HMS Stoic sinks Japanese fishing boat No.55 Nanyo Maru 18 miles from Muka Cape.

July 14—Operation CADILLAC: B-17’s drop 2,491 containers of arms and supplies to aid FFI in central and southern France.  In Paris and suburbs, lots of marches and protests, not seen since1940; several RR workers arrested.  Destroyer William C. Miller sinks Japanese submarine RO-48, near Saipan Is.

July 15—Six hundred and seven bombers of the U.S. 15th A.F. plaster Ploesti, with 1,526 tons.  Home in Indiana premieres in Technicolor in Los Angeles.

July 16—1,087 bombers and over 623 escorts of the U.S. 8th A.F. hit Munich, Stuggart, Augsburg, and Saarbrucken; 113 Americans missing in action.  U.S. sub Bonefish sinks Borneo-bound Japanese cargo vessel No.3 Tatsu Maru in Sulu Sea 10 nautical miles south of Palawan.  U.S. submarine Skate sinks Japanese transport Nipp_ Maru, e. of South Sakhalin, Kurils; survivors are rescued by Russian ship Dalstroi.  RAAF Beaufighters damage Japanese gunboat Man-Yo Maru, cargo vessel Tensho Maru, and motor sailboat No.14 Sakura Maru off Maumere.

July 17—U.S. 15th A.F. bombs rail targets in France.  Ammunition-carrying U.S. freighter E.A. Bryan explodes at the Port Chicago, California, ammunition depot; the adjacent freighter Quinalt Victory is also destroyed. Armed Guards on board both vessels are wiped out. Among the casualties are 250 African-American sailors. When survivors refuse to return to work in the wake of the blast, they are convicted of mutiny.  U.S. sub Cabrilla continues attack on Japanese convoy off west coast of Mindanao, sinking army transport Maya Maru and damaging transport Natsukawa Maru.  U.S. sub Gabilan sinks Japanese minesweeper W.25  northwest of Zenizu, Japan.  Gen. Rommel injured by Allied aircraft. Senior statesmen in Japan demand Tojo’s resignation.

July 18—U.S. troops of the 29th capture Saint Lô, but town for a week is subjected to heavy artillery fire.  Hideki Tojo falls from power and replaced by General Kuniaki Koiso as Premier and Admiral Mitsumasa Yonai as Vice Premier.  Over 2000 heavy Allied bombers bomb Caen to support Montgomery's planned breakout; largest bombardment in support of ground troops to this date.  German troops round up 2,000 Jews at Rhodes and Kos, Greece, for Auschwitz.  British troops liberate southern part of Caen, and within 24 hours all of Caen. The Western Front.  Sub Plaice sinks Ch 50, 200 nautical miles northwest of Chichi Jima. Sub Ray sinks Japanese merchant tanker Jambi Maru (ex-Dutch Djambi) in the Java Sea north of Bawean Is.  Sub Lapon sinks Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Kurama Maru off southern end of Palawan; and survey ship No.36 Kyodo Maru and auxiliary submarine chaser Kamo Maru  northwest of Labuan, Borneo.  Fleet tug Apache retrieves disabled LCI(G)-348 from waters off Guam.  B-24s sink Japanese transport No.3 Kaio Maru northwest of Morotai, Indonesia.

July 19—1,082 bombers and over 670 escorts of U.S. 8th A.F. plus some 400 bombers of the U.S. 15th hit factories, a dam, 6 RR yards, 5 airfields; over 190 Americans missing in action.  RAAF Mitchells sink Japanese auxiliary minesweeper Wa.4 off Dili, Timor; small cargo vessel No.53 Ebisu Maru near Alor Island; and motor sailboat Bokkai Maru s.w. of Alor.  U.S. sub Flasher sinks Japanese light cruiser Oi in South China Sea.  Destroyer escort Wyman sinks Japanese submarine I-5, 360 miles east of Guam. Variety reports the most popular songs are: (1) “I’ll be Seeing You” (2) “Long Ago and Far Away” (3) “Amor.”

July 20—Members of the German military attempted to assassinate Chancellor Adolf Hitler in his East Prussian headquarters.  Hitler escaped the bombing attempt with only slight injuries and for weeks thereafter a major purge to root out the German resistance is mounted; the world really does not get the news until July 21.  U.S. 15th A.F. destroys 950 jet aircraft in Friedrichshafen.

July 21—U.S. 3rd Marine Division and First Brigade invade the island of Guam; at night a fierce Banzai charge counterattacks American forces and it is repelled.

July 22—Ploesti bombed by U.S. 15th A.F. after a dormant month, of 495 aircraft 24 are lost. 76 Lightnings and 58 Mustangs of 15th A.F. succeed in shuttle mission to bases in USSR, destroying 56 enemy aircraft in Rumania.

July 23—A 7-hour strike held at the Villeneuve-St Georges station called for the release of the imprisoned RR workers. A delegation went to discuss the issue with management in Paris and all are arrested by the Gestapo.  British submarine HMS Storm sinks Japanese cargo ship Kiso Maru and fishing vessel Taih_ Maru near Port Owen.   U.S. freighter William Gaston is sunk by U-861 en route from Buenos Aires to Baltimore.

July 24—U.S. Marines from the 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions invade Tinian Island; the U.S. lost 394 killed and 1,961 wounded; the Japanese lost over eight thousand when it was finally secured a week later.  Some 9,000 Japanese civilians chose to surrender. Remember that in regards the Pacific, due to the international dateline, the actual Pacific event was a date earlier. ie when, for example, Tinian was invaded, on July 24, European time was still July 23.  Russians liberate city of Lublin, eastern Poland, and some 3 miles away discover Majdanek extermination camp virtually intact but with fewer than 500 prisoners left; a polish resistance group had risen to stop the SS from destroying evidence of camp’s existence.  Soviet officials later invited journalists to inspect the camp and see evidence of the crematorium and the horrors.

July 25—A novel American offensive (Operation “Cobra”) with 1508 heavy bombers carpet-bomb area s. of St. Lô followed by some 500 P-47s and P-51s followed by some 300 medium bombers causes German front to collapse; initially the winds shifted and caused U.S. casualties; Cobra takes troops out from the confining sector of Normandy.  As of date, 12 U.S. 9th A.F. groups are on French soil.  Reminiscent of Saipan, fierce Banzai charge against Marines on Guam, in the night—an estimated 3,500 Japanese were killed.  Remember that in regards the Pacific, due to the international dateline, the actual Pacific event was a date earlier. ie while, for example, Operation Cobra took place on July 25, the Banzai charge had occurred a day earlier European time.  U.S. 15th A.F. fighter bombers from Soviet bases attack Mielec air base in Poland with great effect. 

July 26—U.S. First Army cuts vital Lessay-Periers road, gains bridgehead and advance begins to pour through.  U.S. 15th A.F. fighters leave Soviet Union destroying 20 enemy aircraft over Bucharest.  Nisei Americans of U.S. 5th Army make contact with German units between Suvereto and Campiglia.

July 27—A fierce typhoon whips the Mariana islands.

July 28—U.S. 8th A.F. conducts a highly successful pinpoint attack on oil target at Merseburg-Leuna.  First objective in “Cobra” attained as Coutances, France liberated; and Germans withdraw en masse.  

July 30—Avranches, France, overlooking a bay, is liberated by U.S. 1st Army.  U.S. troops take Sansapor Island.  St. Lô below in color.

Jul 31 —Approximately 10,000 lend-lease (U.S. built) aircraft have been sent to USSR since October of 1941.  Approximately 100,000 Germans killed or wounded in France since D-Day.  U.S. 4th Arm Div secures Selune and vital bridge in Pontaubault.  

Death, destruction, waste, the world was in turmoil 75 years ago.  From the smallest of farms to the giant capitals of Europe, from prisons and gas chambers and burning crematoriumsSummer of ’44 saw gas chambers working at 100% maximum—people yearned for freedom.  A Nazi Germany that had exploited the riches of Europe was due for a large change, and that started in France.  Summer saw the liberation of Europe begin in an incredible way when the ax fell on Hitler's best officersall down the lineit began slowly with the breakout of Normandy at the end of July.  Three Allied armies had been stuck since June in a little northwest corner of France.  Four major roads and 4 secondary roads sprocketed from St. Lô.   Actual video look at St. Lô and in color early summer; silent film, merci chronohistory.  It was declared liberated on July 18 and two weeks later, Gen. Patton's Third Army began a charge though France that liberated more towns and cities than all the other armies combined.  By Aug 26, getting ahead of ourselves, the U.S. Third Army liberated over 77,000 square kilometersPatton, collected maps the way some people collect coins or art treasures but three other factors played a key role: air support, the French Resistance, and the Allies had ridded Germany of its top field commanders during summer that literally spelled a new beginning, which gave people an escape from the nasty, darkest dungeons of the heart.  [By late summer, Field Marshal Rommel and General F. Dollman were not around anymore.  Gen. E. Marcks was killed in the beginning of D-Day. Field Marshal von Rundstedt, the hero of 1940, had quit although later he was installed. Mid-June Gen. Speidel, Rommel's Chief of Staff, had been killed.  Gen. Blumentrilt also lay six feet under.  SS Gen. Paul Hausser, the replacement to Gen. Dollman was wounded shortly after Falaise; Hausser used to be the commander of the VII Army.  When the Germans were retreating out from Falaise, Field Marshal Kluge, the theater commander, committed suicide.  Around Amiens on Aug. 31, a general by the name of Hans Eberbach was captured by a British platoon. Gen. Ramcke was taken in mid-September.  A litany of colonels were also captured or put out of service. All these things took a toll on the Wehrmacht (German Army) and its entire nerve system.  But, the spark, in this author's estimation, were Patton's Third Army's exploits and the results achieved were nothing short of fabulous.]  Keep in mind, France is the largest country in Western Europe with one of the most, if not the most, diversified landscape.  This is avidly described in the commemorative volume of 1944.

Aug 1 —American divisions in France split into 2 armies, the First and the Third.  Patton’s Third Army becomes operational and leads the Allied breakout into central France, first entering Brittany to secure vital ports and harbors beginning about 2  days later.  2nd French Armored Division enters France via Utah Beach, assigned to Patton’s XV Corps, Third Army, under Gen. Wade H. Haislip, who had been a student at the Ecole de Guerre, the war college in Paris, and knew French.  Patriotic forces hoping to free Warsaw, the capital, start an uprising as Soviet troops begin approaching the city; yearly Aug.1 is Memorial Day in Poland; dual 75th Anniversaries and 75th part 2 of the WARSAW UPRISING (thank you Chido-Fajny, Luke, and Polska Fundacja Narodowad).  Wilson premier in Technicolor at the Roxy in N.Y.C.  Costing $1m more than the 1939 Gone With the Wind, it was the most expensive film ever made at that time ($5.2m); the ads included 32,000 billboards coast to coast, 3,280 radio announcements; but in July had its “premiere” in Wahoo, Nebraska, Producer Darryl Zanuck’s home town, but was a flop in Wahoo and so it is rarely mentioned as “a premier”; also a box office flop elsewhere, but not at the Roxy: it grossed more than any one movie had in a single theatre up to then; movie's tone an internationalist theme. 

Aug 2 —RAF begins night-supply help to Warsaw.  Soviet A.F. daylight support over Warsaw mysteriously disappears.  Radio Berlin admits Rommel is hurt.   Luftwaffe pilot Lieut. Erich Sommer flew an Arado 234 secret jet powered med. bomber over Allied Normandy beachheads, taking a high-def photo every 11 seconds; first jet aircraft recon mission in aviation history.  U.S. destroyer escort Fiske torpedoed by U-804 in South Atlantic.  A unit of the 1st Polish Army attached to the Soviet Red Army establishes a bridgehead over the Vistula River, s. of Warsaw.  U.S. sub Tautog sinks cargo ship Konei Maru off Honshu, Japan.  Gypsy Wildcat released in Los Angeles in Technicolor. 

Aug 3 —French resistance fighters the “Battalion of Heaven” 150 strong drop by parachute from England, secure several high RR bridges near Brest and with local maquisards hold and saved them for Patton’s advancing units.

Aug 3-4 —U.S. 3rd Army spearhead liberates Rennes, 150 miles from Argentan.  Intensive V-1 attack on southern England lasts a record 14 hours; ten hospitals are struck while German 7th Army retreats out of Normandy.   Pres. Roosevelt visits Adak, Aleutians on board cruiser Baltimore.  British 2nd Army fight entrenched stiff resistance along Vire and Estry.  British 8th Army reach Florence, Italy.  Capture of Myitkyina finalized; at a cost of 972 Chinese and 272 Americans killed; 3,184 Chinese and 955 Americans wounded; 188 Chinese and 980 Americans sick.   U.S. 7th Inf Div and U.S. 3rd Mar Div continue fighting for northern Guam mainly jungle.     

Aug 4 —Electrostatic Plant for manufacturing hydrogen peroxide in Peenemunde bombarded by 221 Flying Fortresses of 8th A.F.  Heinkel Flugzugwerke, Rostok, hit by 146 bombers of 8th A.F.   More Lightnings (P-38s) land on Russia.   Warsaw airlift to aid Polish resistance begins from far-away bases in Celone and Brindisi but were denied clearance to fly over Soviet air space or land on nearby Allied Soviet airbases; in fact, Soviet gunners shot at the night flights.  Warsaw airlift was conducted by Polish, British, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand and South African airmen sporadically until Sept. 28. Stalin refused Western Allies the use of his airfields near Warsaw for several weeks but he gave clearance and allowed other airfields to be used by U.S.-Allied forces.  A bridgehead is established over the Vistula R. near Baranov by Soviet forces.   RAF pilot T.D. Dean makes successful combat debut against V-1, as he tips the rocket into the sea with wing.  British 50th Div liberates Villers-Bocage.  U.S. 83rd Inf Div pounds St. Malo.  American task force locates Japanese convoy and sink destroyer Matsu, collier Ryuko Maru, carrier planes sink transports No.7 Unkai Maru, Enju Maru, Tonegawa Maru and Shogen Maru; ship gunfire and carrier planes combine to sink cargo ship Hokkai Maru.  Army and Marines link up on Guam.  U.S. sub Ray sinks cargo ship Koshu Maru in Celebes Sea.  Anne Frank and her family arrested by Gestapo.  

Aug 5 —Brittany peninsula is cut off as U.S. 4th Arm Div reaches Vannes, 4th Arm frequently travelled the secondary roads, because the Germans tended to concentrate their obstacles and ambushes along the main highways;  led by Gen. John S. Wood, "the Rommel of the American armored forces."  U.S. sub Cero sinks oiler Tsurumi in Davao Gulf. 

Aug 6 —Patton’s troops reach Saint Brieuc and Brest, over 160 astounding miles from Avranches.  Patton’s troops liberate Laval.  Gen. Montgomery orders drive to the Seine.  Strong counterattacks hit British 2nd Army between Vire and Mont Pincon.  Three PT boats race to intercept a flotilla of German patrol boats forcing them back to Le Havre.   Berlin and varying oil refineries in Hamburg and Harburg bombed by 999 bombers of U.S. 8th A.F.  Rail and land transport into Paris disrupted; bread supplies some 60% of pre-war levels, milk supplies down to 12%, meat consumption down to 20%, vegetable supplies down to 10%.  Paris edict: gas available only from 12:15 to 12:30 pm and 7:20-8:30 pm for cooking. Gasoline for driving?  Nonexistent, that is why you see WW II people in Paris on bikes. The Paris Metro is ordered shut down from 11 am to 3 pm.   Aircraft plant at Gdynia, Poland  attacked by 76 B-17s and fighters of U.S. 8th A.F.   Rail targets all along Bucharest hit by U.S. 15th A.F. fighters.  U.S. sub Pintado sinks cargo ship Sh_nan Maru.  U.S. sub Rasher sinks merchant Shiroganesan Maru west of Luzon.  U.S. 1st Army liberates Vire.  Harvard University discloses that Comdr. Howard Aiken in collaboration with IBM has developed an automatic calculator computer, “Super Brain”.

Aug 7 —Patton’s Third Army fiercely encircles Brest; but garrison of 36,000 Germans hold out. With a spearhead of 4 panzer divisions, Germans launch counterattack against U.S. 1st Army at Mortain in an attempt to halt the Allied breakout, advancing to Juvigny.   Four German divisions are isolated on Brittany.  Mont Pincon falls to British.  Canadian 1st Army begins to move on Falaise after heavy air bombardment. 83rd Inf Div liberates Dinard.  U.S. sub Barbel sinks cargo vessel Sakura Maru off Tokuno Jima.  U.S. sub Bluegill sinks transport Yamatama Maru s.w. of Mindanao.  U.S. sub Croaker sinks cruiser Nagara 35 miles s. of Nagasaki.  Oil refineries at Trzebina, Poland hit by U.S. 8th A.F.   President Roosevelt arrives at Kodiak, Alaska. 

Aug 8 —Le Mans, major city of 75,000, in some of the loveliest garden-like lands of France, is liberated by Patton’s 3rd Army as they hit stride eastward towards Paris. 

Aug 9 —Eisenhower establishes headquarters in France.  U.S. 15th A.F. bombs Hungary oil refineries.  U.S. 5th Inf Div reaches outskirts of Angers.  Canadian 1st Army is bogged down 8 miles n. of Falaise. A secret mission to rescue downed bomber pilots over Serbia is begun by OSS and Serbian chetnik freedom fighters.  U.S. sub Barbel sinks cargo ship Yagi Maru and merchant Boko Maru near Okinoshima. Debut of ”Smokey the Bear”.  British sub Trenchant sinks fishing boat No 2 Hiyoshi Maru off Sumatra.

Aug 10—Ploesti is bombed by 414 U.S. bombers.  The U.S. 5th and Fr. 2nd Armored Divisions meet stiff resistance n.e. of Le Mans, loose some 40 tanks between them.  Patriots in Warsaw able to control three-fifths of the city, plea for outside help indicating they face extinction unless assisted (2.56 min video thanks to crimsonsky).  Standard Oil plant near Paris is bombed by 8th A.F.  Polish troops in Italy advance to the Cesano River.  Organized enemy resistance ceases on the Marianas.  Iwo Jima is bombed by U.S. 7th A.F. for the first time.  Railwaymen and Metro staff of Paris go on strike.  Superfortresses fly from secret base in Ceylon 4,030 miles to mine and bomb Palembang oil site in the Sumatran mtns; the longest nonstop mission of the war.  Guam is declared free and secured, at a cost of almost 11,000 U.S. casualties.  Several thousand native Chamorros are free.  Race riots in Athens, Alabama. U.S. sub Bowfin sinks cargo ship Seiko Maru.  U.S. sub Guitarro sinks tanker Shinei Maru off Luzon.

Aug 11Angers, a city of 95,000 near the Loire River but on the Maine River, liberated by U.S. 3rd Army, handling almost 2,000 prisoners.  Patton’s spearhead liberates Nantes situated on the Loire, 158 miles from St..  Allies advance to the Indo-Burmese frontier and force Japanese troops to retreat into Burma.

Aug 12A full Battle Group (German 1st and 7th Armies) beats a crazy retreat from Normandy. U.S. HQ of Patton utilized both the simple and the complex during his summer drive.  The speed of his advance forced Patton to use close air support, a concept begun in late July by Gen. Elwood P. Quesada whereby an air traffic controller rode in one of the spearhead tanks who would be in close contact with 3 or 4 Thunderbolts or Mustangs.   Moreover, they all had help big time from British military intelligence in particular cipher traffic that decrypt the highly technical Lorenz SZ 40/42 machines of German High Command.  The Germans thought they were super smart when they had completed a highly advanced version in June, the SZ42B, but the British had a trick up their sleeve, the thermionic valves Colossus computer (not to be confused with Colossus: The Forbin Project) running at Bletchley Park. [On June 1, the improved Colossus Mark 2, that used shift registers to quintuple the processing speed went online just in time; a copy of it is on display at The National Museum of Computing at Bletchley Park as all originals were destroyed; note, it was not designed to decode Enigma. All this was ultra secret, and hence the term Ultra code breaking is found in both the film and written media. Ultra utilizes a machine that looks like an old-fashioned typewriter but with highly complex rotors and wires etc.  Within this domain was Colossus which cut the time to "translate” the latest of the German Lorenz. I suspect both machinations were used to give Patton’s G-2 HQ info on enemy strength and disposition.]  U.S. Third Army had more G-2 officers than any other army. All this added to his lightning operation that is rarely told.  When the famous Patton movie was released, however, in 1970 with George C. Scott, the existence of the Colossus machines was unknown as it was kept secret until the mid-1970s. The German thrust at Mortain is spent and over, U.S. 1st Army, held.  Other U.S. 1st Army units plus British 2nd Army, Canadian 1st Army and U.S. 3rd Army help squeeze the Nazis in a gap around Chamois-Argentan-Lisieux, France, known as the Battle of Argentan-Falaise.   Pluto oil line semi-completed from Britain to France.  U.S. 5th Arm Div and Fr. 2nd Arm Div race toward town of Argentan, which that morning only had some German bakers; U.S. on the eastern side, Fr. on the western side and things become confused.  The last Nazis are driven from Florence, Italy.  U.S. sub Puffer sinks oil tanker Teikon Maru off Cape Calavite.  U.S. sub Tambor sinks Toei Maru in Sea of Okhotsk.  U.S. sub Flier hits mine south of Palawan and goes to the bottom of the sea.  Churchill asks Stalin to send aid to help Polish war-fighters in Warsaw; and is refused. Royal Canadian AF pilots flying new Spitfire Mark XIVs begin anti-V-1 flying operations. Pres. Roosevelt concludes naval inspections in Pacific and departs Puget Sound.

Aug 13—100 miles away from Paris, U.S. 5th Arm Div and Fr 2nd Arm Div blocked at Argentan by 3 newly-arrived panzer divisions.   Policemen and subways of Paris go on strike. Hardly ever told, pretty unknown, a flight of B-24 Liberators of the South African A.F. set off to Brindisi, Italy and then towards the enemy infested city of Warsaw zig-zagging through 7 countries to drop some supplies. Luftwaffe launches 19 V-1s not from the ground, but from a bomber airplane; a new tactic to deliver V-1s to England.  A further 17 V-1s fired at England; for a brief chronology of the V-1.   

Aug 14—Japanese propaganda radio broadcast, The Zero Hour, with Tokyo Rose, was clearly heard in San Francisco, California.  LST-921 sunk by U-boat 11 miles s.w. of Hartland Point, England.  U.S. sub Bluefish sinks tanker Shinpo Maru.  U.S. sub Ray sinks merchantman Zuisho Maru near Borneo. 800 RAF bombers sent to bomb over Falaise to relieve pressure at Falaise; 150 Polish troops killed due to error by navigators.

Aug 15—Fantastic, thunderous news: Supported by 1,300 Allied land-based bombers and fighters striking so. France, a gigantic Allied invasion of French Riviera: involving 900 ships of four Allied navies, including 6 aircraft carriers, 300,000 U.S., French and British invade between St. Tropez and Nice, France (colorized 7.22min video; thanks Ralph Laurino).  At nightfall, a JU-88 bomber attacks USS LST-282 with a glide bomb off Cap Dramont, is beached and abandoned.  Ste. Maxime and St. Tropez, on the Fr. Rivera coast, are liberated by U.S. 7th Army 10.41min video (merci Justine and hdarchives).  Over 2,000 German POWs by nightfall.   Luftwaffe pilot Helmut Lennartz first time shoots down a B-17 in his Messerschmitt 262 jet.  Patton has U.S. 4th Arm Div sweep the n. bank of the Loire between Tours and Blois, as a protection of southern flank—a whole German 19th Army was still free in the south—captures the airport of Orleans and are at the outskirts of the city.  At Chartres, U.S. 7th Arm Div begins initial attacks on city—magnet city full of retreating Germans—at night the U.S. withdraw.  Below are Dorothy Du Boisson (left) and Elsie Booker with the Colossus Mark 2. 

Aug 16Dreux and the city of Joan of Arc, Orleans, are liberated by U.S. 3rd Army (merci AFCVM, Bestnomads and M. Fouquet).  Canadian 1st Army enters wrecked town of Falaise.   St. Malo is secured.  Blois is liberated by another of Patton’s Third Army columns.  U.S. 7th Arm Div and 5th Inf Div attack Chartres en force. The American who saved it's beautiful cathedral on this day: Col. Welborn B. Griffith of Texas infiltrated the German-still-held city, went inside the Cathedral and found no Germans inside including it's tower, reported back to save the monument from being shelled. General Bradley instructs Patton to go no further. 35 young Resistance fighters in Paris attending a secret meeting were captured by the Gestapo after being betrayed; executed.  The Messerschmitt Me.163 “Komet” rocket-powered interceptor is used against Allied bombers for the first time.  1,069 B-17’s hit oil and aircraft targets in central Germany.  There are still 5 fighting armies of Germany in France: V Panzers, I, VII and XV Armies. The XIX is below the Loire R, far south.  Soviet spearhead forces advance to seven miles n.e. of Warsaw, and halt.  Over England, at least 41 V-1 rockets brought down by A-A British batteries; the scale of V-1 attacks very high.  Washington D.C. orders Eisenhower to undertake supply-mission for Warsaw relief.  Le Muy, So. France, captured by U.S. paratroop forces.  Pt boats 202 and 218 hit mines and sink in Gulf of Frejus.  U.S. imposes a freeze on Argentina’s gold assets.  Post men of Paris go on strike.  The Junkers Ju.287-V1 secret prototype jet bomber, which features Germany’s forward-swept wings, is flown for the first time.  LST-391 is damaged by mine off Cherbourg.

Aug 17Over 86,500 Allies have been landed over French Mediterranean beaches since D-Day.  Châteaudun is liberated by U.S. 3rd Army.  Bradley releases Patton however, a change of command: U.S. forces trying to seal the southern portion of the Battle of Argentan-Falaise is changed from Third Army to First Army HQ.   All air support over Argentan-Falaise also becomes off-limits to Allied pilots, ie. stopped. 

Aug 18—Patton’s Third Army battles for encircled Chartres, artillery that fired on the city, cautioned to be careful of the historic town and its cathedral.    Cathedral city of Chartres by close of day is liberated; over 2,000 prisoners, a large Luftwaffe installation, depots, and 50 planes captured; Paris is only 50 miles away.  Massive, beautiful cathedral left untouched, much appreciation to Rick Steves (2.46 mins).  Another of Patton’s spearhead divisions reach Seine River at Mantes-la-Jolie, a town about 30 miles n.w of Paris. Mantes-Gassicourt reached, but troops do not enter.  German troops evacuate Rambouillet at night.  Limited fighting breaks out in the suburbs of Paris, in Les Lilas the skies lit up at night with flames.  U.S. Sub Ray sinks merchant tanker Nansei Maru off southern tip of Palawan.  U.S. Subs Rasher and Redfish attack convoy off w. coast of Luzon, sink escort carrier Taiyo, transport Teia Maru, cargo ship Eishin Maru, oiler Teiyo Maru, and merchant tanker Eiyo Maru.  Dutch submarine Zwaardvisch sinks Japanese vessel Kim Hup Soen in Strait of Malacca.  Three hundred and 77 U.S. bombers hit Ploesti; 7 planes lost.  

Aug 19—Third Army’s 79th Div enters Mantes-Gassicourt, meeting no resistance by the Germans.  75 years ago the Allied world felt a happy time, today’s citizens can freely be HAPPY MANTES LA JOLIE (like 4mins merci LFM Radio 95.5FM.  Each scene of the modern-day people interspersed within this timeline has this in mind, to show the beauty of vibrance from a world that was etched in the memory, and fought for in order to be free, and each scene was chosen to represent people and myriad cultures and geographies.)  79th crosses the Seine in a rain downpour at night—actually the 1st troops used a nearby narrow foot path across a dam in single file; the vital river is denied the German.  Twenty-one C-47s land with 47 tons of rations near Le Mans, becomes the first delivery of what was a daily emergency airlift to entire Third Army.  Police invade the Prefecture de Police, the first official building to be liberated in Paris. Parisians set up barricades but many had no ammo. For the most part, Germans control the streets.  Paris eerily deserted in many places, whistling bullets fly by, guns echo as German vehicles scurry about the chaos.  The SS storm a police station near Gare de Lyon, and capture over a dozen policemen.  The military commander of Paris, General Dietrich von Choltitz, and Raoul Nordling, the Swedish counsel general in Paris, conclude a truce, to expire on Aug. 22, that held back a resistance uprising.  Both Gen. Eisenhower and De Gaulle feared civil unrest in Paris could result in German destruction.   U.S. Navy Hellcats and British Seafires sweep inland and destroy locomotives and rolling stock and first-time down Luftwaffe aircraft over southern France, near Toulouse.  Sixty-five U.S. bombers strike Ploesti; 0 losses.  Battleship Nevada, French battleship Lorraine, and heavy cruiser Augusta blast the harbor and batteries at St. Mandrier.  U.S. sub Bluefish sinks tanker/seaplane carrier Hayasui, and damages hospital ship Awa Maru off Cape Bolinao.  Polish airmen in RAF shoot down 12 V-1s.  Hitler and his general staff are preparing to organize the Somme-Marne River line for defensive positions near Paris.  Commander-in-Chief Model makes it imperative that sector between the Eure and the Seine River vital near Louviers where  “an enemy breakthrough attempt to Louviers can be expected." 

Aug 20—U.S. 8th and 15th A.F.’s strike I.G. Farben and Auswitz.  Majority of 79th Div across Seine at Mantes-Gassicourt, and ordered to head north to Louviers, about 28 miles away, and cut German escape route.  U.S. artillery unit composed of Afro Americans (silent).  Six Avengers from U.S. carrier Bogue sink U-1229, 300 nautical miles from Cape Race, Newfoundland, N. Atlantic; U-1229 was proceeding to Long Island, N.T., U.S.A., to drop off sneaky saboteurs.  B-24s of U.S. 14th Air Force sink Japanese tanker Chuko Maru near Hong Kong. Half the Gare de Lyon police captives machine-gunned by the SS.  At 11:30 pm Free French Radio erupts on the air, replacing Radio-Paris. Toulouse liberated by FFI. A new summer offensive by Soviet Army commences in the Jassy area of Rumania. 

Aug 20-21—Deep ravines, woods, fog and rain aid German forces to contain U.S. troops advancing to Louviers.  Area around Falaise and Argentan surrounded, about 60 miles from Louviers, escape pocket for 15 German divisions is closed by Canadian and Polish troops, trap nets over 50,000 prisoners; 30,000 manage to escape; over 50,000 dead Germans, 1,800 dead horses counted dead and the stench in summer was horrific.  Worst German disaster since Stalingrad.  Germans that escaped the Falaise trap desperately poured across Rouen and about 18 major ferry points between Rouen and Mantes, where Seine is only 500 ft in width, and ferry across. Ordinary people had been killed by the Germans while the so-called cease fire was in effect. People of Paris rise to oust the Germans. H Hour for the FFI (5min11sec).  The Maquis strike. The German commander in Paris had orders from Hitler to blow all 60-odd bridges and destroy Paris.   B-29’s meet enemy opposition for first time over Yawatta; 13 losses.  U.S. 15th A.F. bombs oil refineries in Poland and Czechoslovakia in great depth, and becomes the least costliest day mission in 15th A.F. history; 4 losses out of 500.  Off Mindoro, U.S. subs Guitarro, Haddo, Harder and Ray carry out series of attacks on Japanese convoy: Guitarro sinks cargo ship Uga Maru; Haddo sinks merchants Kinryu Maru and Norfolk Maru and damages merchant tanker Taiei Maru; and Ray sinks Japanese oil tanker Taketoyo Maru.   Churchill and Roosevelt address a joint appeal to Stalin to help the people of Warsaw.    It is a Cruel Summer for the Axis but it is crueler for the Polish resistance fighters known as the Home Army (AK).  U.S. Third Army spearhead column is 62 miles s.e. of Paris and liberates Sens; 29 miles from Montargis.

Aug 22—Patton’s Third Army liberates la Chapelle.  U.S. subs Haddo and Harder encounter three Japanese escort vessels off the mouth of Manila Bay and sink Sado, Matsuwa and Hiburi.  U.S. sub Pintado sinks merchantship No.2 Tonan Maru 200 nautical miles southeast of Shanghai.  U.S. sub Tang sinks Japanese cargo ship No.2 Nansatsu Maru off Mikizaki.  U.S. sub Bowfin sinks cargo ship Tsushima Maru in the Nansei Shoto; not knowing 767 children on board. British sub HMS Statesman sinks Japanese cargo ship No.5 Sugi Maru off  Port Blair.  Canadian Army crosses Touques River.  Deauville liberated by 1st Belgian Inf Brigade. Luftwaffe flies bombers carrying new V-1s from a secret base on Venlo, Holland and strikes at England.   Imperial Japan initiates compulsory labor draft for women and girls from 12 to 40.  Polish troops clear all resistances of the Metauro River in Italy.  Military commander of war-time Paris receives an order from High Command in Berlin, on decoded orders from Hitler, Paris is not to fall into enemy hands other than as a heap of rubble, and to blow up whole city blocks.  Kismet premieres in Technicolor in N.Y. City.

Aug 23—Citizens of Paris seized arms and riot against the German occupation forces. The excitement mounts in Paris. The French Forces of the Interior launch full scale attacks against occupiers in the metropolis.  This is a silent video but is included for what it shows and its historical importance on advancement through France; about 10 mins.   I remember my father telling me, “We walked and we walked a lot across Europe.”  In two columns, a Franco-American force heads for Paris and at night are less than 20 miles from the capital. Troops of the U.S. 4th Inf Div get the go-ahead to capture the Seine bridges upstream of Paris. The 2 Allied axis of drive: the Leclerc division with 4th Div GIs reinforced by four battalions of tank destroyers and Shermans, and staff members of U.S. V Corps, and reporters went in by the north. From the south, through Rambouillet, Versailles was the bulk of the Fr. troops, U.S engineers and artillery, and more reporters.  French troops under Leclerc were given the honor of first entry but they ran into artillery traps on the outskirts of Rambouillet; 41 armored vehicles and 317 men die. Drancy Concentration Camp in Paris liberated.  Grenoble, at the foot of the Alps, is secured by U.S. 36th Inf Div.  Marseille, France's largest port, secured by Free French and Resistance forces.  Third Army spearhead liberates the city of Fontainebleau (5 mins video), 34 miles s.e. of Paris. U.S. sub Tang sinks cargo ship Tsukushi Maru off Hamamatsu.  U.S. freighter Louis Kossuth enroute to Utah Beach torpedoed by U-989 escapes sinking, towed to Cowes, England, by British tug Empire Winnie.  A U.S. B-24 crashes into village of Freckleton, England, destroys Holy Trinity Church, several homes and the Sad Sack Snack Bar; of the 60 people killed by accident, 38 are children, 7 U.S. servicemen, 4 British servicemen in village. German garrison on Isle de Proquerolles, except isolated stragglers, surrenders to Commander TG 86.3 in light cruiser Omaha; the island will then be occupied by Senegalese troops.  On Eastern Front, King Michael of Romania dismisses government of General Ion Antonescu and accepts the United Nations armistice terms.  The Romanian surrender trapped most of the German Black Sea fleet.  Soviets occupy Romania.  Soviet domination of the Black Sea opened up a strategic supply route which permitted more cargo to reach the Soviet Union.

Aug 24—Swiss journalist Edmond Dubois in Paris wrote, "The tremendous noise of shells [4 Panther tanks were battling the FFI on the rue de Grenelle] being fired echoes around the narrow street, where I am, while the blast fills the street and smacks your face.  It gives the impression of force and power, there is the overwhelming smell of gunpowder."  South of Paris before Versailles, Fr. tank progress is held up by German anti-tank defenses, especially in the forest of l'Homme Mort (the Dead Man).  While in northern Paris, convoys of German trucks evacuate Paris and are shot all over the place.  The train stations Gare du Nord and Gare de l'Est crammed with troops waiting for trains that never came.  By nightfall all of them wind up as POWs.  Before midnight, a small Fr. unit led by Capt. Raymond Dronne somehow penetrates through the suburbs—with delirious people swamping his 22 vehicles and girls perched on top of some of his tanks— into the center of Paris, cross the Seine R. by the Gare d'Austerlitz, reaching the Hotel de Ville just before 11 pm, but much of the city is now quiet, except where men of the captain were; of his 160 troops, 146 had Spanish names or were Spanish exiles. The great bells of Notre Dame suddenly began to ring loudly.  Another Fr. column under Col. Massu with a group of Americans of the 102nd Cavalry led by Captain Peterson, inched their way from the s.w. near Sèvres, moments after Dronne reached the Hotel de Ville, and headed for the Seine, and set up an HQ near the Il Seguin.  Before the midnight hour, the electricity of the city suddenly came on and all the street lights bathed everyone in lights to their surprise. Musée de la Libération de Paris is a new museum in Paris that just opened in 2019.  Spearhead of U.S. Third Army streams to Montargis, 83 miles from Mantes-Gassicourt.  U.S. 2nd Arm Div, First Army, reaches Elbeuf and hits firm lines of defense.  American troops enter Cannes.  Weimar Armament Works is attacked by 129 8th A.F. bombers.  2000 U.S. bombers strike oil plants in central, western Germany and Czechoslovakia; missions are highly successful. All students in Nazi Germany mobilized for war work.   British carrier force attacks Padang, Sumatra, sinking Japanese merchant cargo ship Shiretoko Maru near the harbor and damaging Senko Maru and Chisho Maru.  U.S. submarine Sailfish sinks transport Toan Maru in Luzon Strait.  U.S. sub Harder is sunk by Japanese Coast Defense Vessel No. 22 off west coast of Luzon.   U.S. sub Seal sinks Japanese merchantship Tosei Maru off s.e. coast of Hokkaido.  U.S. sub Ronquil attacks Japanese convoy, sinking army cargo ship No.3 Yoshida Maru off Keelung, Formosa (Taiwan), and merchant cargo ship Fukurei Maru off Sankaku Island.

Aug 25Paris liberated.

One of the most famous war correspondents of WW II was Ernest Taylor Pyle, known as Ernie Pyle.  The Albuquerque Museum contains memorabilia, images and documents on Ernie Pyle.

He wrote newspaper columns for the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain, with his initial WWII coverage going back to the Battle of Britain 1941 for Scripps, an American broadcasting company, which started in 1878 when Edward W. Scripps first published the Cleveland Penny Press; Scripps moved to Chicago 37 years later and his newspaper chain became a dominant player in both media news and United Feature Syndicate, which was founded exactly 100 years ago in 1919.  United Feature covered the comic book world, including such names as Dilbert, Garfield, Grin and Bear It, Li’l Abner, Ripley’s Believe It or Not, Tarzan, and Topper.  

 

Before WW II, Ernie Pyle criss-crossed the United States and wrote about it; his informal writing style was unique, furnishing material for a column that eventually led to as many as 200 newspapers before World War II.  Selected Albuquerque for his home.  Initial convoy was to Africa in 1942, landing in the bay of Oran.  He wrote not of battle statistics but about the daily lives of common soldiers in the trenches.  His dispatches brought to life how it was, and he really was read from coast to coast in America by everybody, from Maine and Florida to Seattle, California and Hawaii.  Everybody recognized his name.   

Ernie shyly avoided the public, yet received numerous honors and awards including an honorary Doctor of Letters from the Univ. of New Mexico and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in Journalism for his World War II columns of 1943. They were published as Here is Your War (1943) and Brave Men (1944), and in 1945 a movie was released based on him and the GIs titled GI JOE, starring Burgess Meredith as Pyle and Robert Mitchum as Waskow, although in the movie he is Lt. Walker. 

His writings also appeared in Stars and Stripes and Yank, the GI papers.  Pyle transcends time for his writings explored the vistas of war that made him memorable.  In 1944, he was right in the middle of the battles of Normandy and France.  About 4 months before WW II ended, a sniper cut his life in April of 1945.  Two of his most famous dispatches were on Capt. Waskow and the liberation of Paris, which was liberated on August 25, 1944. The liberation of Paris is vividly covered in our 1944 commemorative.  I am grateful for the educational links we add here.  His property was donated to the City of Albuquerque, and in 1948 the Pyle House opened to the public as a branch of the Albuquerque Public Library.  The address is 900 Girard Blvd  SE.  If you are there, it is worthwhile to pay a little visit if you visit Albuquerque.  For the record, this website utilizes an uncommon historical photography profile with up-to-date facts. Not one photograph that is herewith in color is colorized. Every photograph is authentic. The photographs utilized thermo-magneto technology.  

Aug 25-26—British motorized infantry troops begin to cross the Seine R.   U.S. 2nd Armor fights its way into Elbeuf, then turns it over to the Canadians. Port city of Toulon in French hands, except the military port of Toulon. Soviets reach Danube River.  German escape ferry operations still in operation across Seine, near Rouen and points south.  Night flight of RAF bombards Russelsheim. A new system to bring American trucks in convoys with petrol oil lubricants from St. Lô on express road to Chartres (depot from which the armies picked up their supplies) is instituted, known as the Red Ball Express, one of the most successful cogs on the road to victory. About 75% of the soldiers in the Red Ball Express were Afro American soldiers. [Between Aug. 19 and Sept. 16, about 13,000 tons were additionally supplied by air, via Skytrains and B-24s.]

Aug 26—Gen. Charles de Gaulle leads a victory parade in newly-freed Paris, down the Champs-Élysées.  An estimated 1,000 French citizens and 3,200 Germans were killed during the Battle for Paris. A further 12,800 German troops became POWs.  Gen. Montgomery orders Canadian First Army to clear Pas-de-Calais, the British Second Army to drive into Belgium, and for the U.S. First in support of British drive. Forward element of U.S. 45th Inf Div drives on Lyon as it chases 19th German Army in retreat. Motor torpedo boats PT-511, PT-514 and PT-520 take part in a night engagement (that lasts into the following day) that turns back the last German attempt to reinforce the besieged garrison at Le Havre; the PT boats sink German artillery ferries AFP 98 and AFP 108.  Luftwaffe planes at night, from Holland and Germany, conduct air raid over Paris, painting the sky a bright red in the southeast; 200 people killed, nearly 900 injured.  Fr. troops mop up enemy in Paris.  U.S. Third Army thrusts to the Marne and overruns Chateau-Thierry.  An American aircrew of 8 from a B-24 shot down near Hanover on Aug. 24, before reaching a POW camp by train, (9 had been captured but one was taken to a hospital on the 24th), forced to march through the town of Russelsheim--RR tracks were down--and attacked by a German mob and are beaten to death; bodies left for dead, but 2 survivors testified at war crimes in 1946. The entire German 19th Army has been moving north since circa Aug. 20 crossing the Rhône and with both sides attacking and counterattacking about 4 miles n. of Montelimar.

Aug 27—Gen. Eisenhower arrives in Paris.  Operation Reunion starts, lasts until Sept. 3, whereby 1,163 American flyers were daringly flown out and rescued out of Rumania in 56 B-17s converted into transports.  A victory parade in Toulon as German artillery guns heard in the distance from the military port of Toulon. (Today, it is the principal base of the French Navy.)  U.S. First Army crosses the Marne River. 1,207 B-17’s turned back from Berlin due to weather.  At night, 200 Halifax bombers hit oil installations in Hamburg.  The first 1944 daylight heavy bomber raid on Germany by RAF.  During the night, a German Gen. Richter and 700 of his men captured trying to dash through Montelimar.  LST-327 is damaged by mine, while en route from Cherbourg to Southampton, England.  U.S. sub Guitarro attacks Japanese convoy bound for Coron Bay, sinks merchant tanker No.25 Nanshin Maru, and damages No.3 Nanshin Maru.  U.S sub Stingray lands men and supplies on northwest shore of Luzon.  

Aug 28—U.S. Third Army liberates Epernay.  In Arabian Sea, U.S. freighter John Barry, en route from Aden to the Persian Gulf, is torpedoed and sunk by German U-859.  Two members of the merchant crew are lost during the abandonment, but 39 of the 41-man merchant complement and the entire 27-man Armed Guard survive.  Naval base at Toulon secured by Fr. forces when last of the German garrisons surrender, about 1,880 men captured; the 9-day battle cost 2,700 casualties with a total of 17,000 German POWs. Port of Marseille also falls, cost 1,800 casualties; bagged 11,000 more prisoners; both ports secured weeks ahead of schedule, although in bad shape. 97 V-1s were launched from Holland, but only 4 get through.  British 8th Army and Polish troops gain ground toward Gothic Line.       

Aug 29—Allied commanders turn over the administration of Paris to General Charles de Gaulle and the French Committee for National Liberation.  U.S. Third Army liberates Châlons-sur-Marne.  British armor crosses Seine River at Vernon. Gen. Montgomery and Gen. Eisenhower issue instruction for operations, priority for gas will be given to the North.  High point of Red Ball Express deliveries up to September 6: 89,939 tons, with the greatest 1-day delivery 12,342 tons today; in the first days of the Express, as the front lines nearly ran out of supplies, drivers set out with maps torn out of the pages of the Stars and Stripes newspaper.  Some 15,000 men of the U.S. 28th Inf Div march in large parade through Paris and then continue to the Front.  WW II GI Harold Angle was lucky to not only attend a 75th Anniversary in 2019, he was in the actual 28th Inf Division that marched in Paris in 1944; merci GlobalNews.  Generals Eisenhower and Bradley visited Paris.  U.S. 7th Army liberates Valence and in company of the French First Army advance north through the Rhône Valley from the Riviera beachhead.  Western Allies recognize Polish Home Army as a legal military force. Marine detachments from heavy cruiser Augusta and light cruiser Philadelphia accept the surrender of two German-held islands in Marseille Harbor and disarm the garrisons.  Western Allies end diplomatic meeting at Dumbarton Oaks, first step in formation of the United Nations.  Underground Slovak resistance units rise against the Germans and the indigenous fascist Slovak regime.  Dutch freighter Sanetta and U.S. freighter Benjamin Bourn between them rescue the 66 survivors from the U.S. freighter John Barry, which had been sunk by German submarine U-859 the day before. Japanese merchant cargo ship Koryu Maru is sunk by aircraft, near Kiukiang, China.  U.S. sub Jack sinks Japanese minesweeper W.28 and army cargo ship Mexico Maru n.w. of Menado, Celebes.  

Aug 30—First U.S. Army railway supply trains roll into Paris with food and supplies.  British 2nd Army liberates Rouen. U.S. 3rd Army liberates Reims. U.S. 7th Army liberates Nice on the French Riviera. Start of 3-day strafing campaign by American P-51 pilots result in a record by 15th A.F. as over 200 enemy aircraft destroyed at Reghin, Debrecen, Kecskemet, and Grosswadein, the Eastern Front.  Canadian First Army with Royal Netherlands Brigade cross Seine R.   U.S. 2nd Arm Div makes great gains from Beauvais.  U.S. tanker Jacksonville, steaming in convoy CU 36, is torpedoed by U-482 while en route to Loch Ewe, Scotland; the gasoline cargo explodes, giving little chance for the 49-man merchant complement or the 29-man Armed Guard to abandon the blazing ship, which breaks in twain at the second massive explosion.   

Aug 31—Patton’s spearhead reaches the Meuse River, when the 4th Arm Div races into the town of Commercy seizing the bridge intact before the Germans could detonate the dynamite, the last strategic river crossing before the German borders, and establishes a bridgehead near the town of Verdun, famous site of WWI.  U.S. 90th Inf Div remains in Reims area.  Patton’s spearhead comes to a temporary halt; out of gas.  In the West his troops battling at Brest temporarily suspend operations.  Advance party of WACS arrive in Paris. U.S. 3rd, 36th, and 45th divs battling up the Rhône R. Valley.  Amiens liberated by U.S. 11th Arm Div.  Following the terms of the Romanian armistice, Soviet forces occupy Bucharest, the fourth European capital to be liberated.  British 2nd Army crosses the Somme River.  British Eighth Army penetrates the German Gothic Line in Italy. U.S. Fifth Army crosses the Arno River.

Sept 1—U.S. 2nd Arm, 3rd Arm, 5th Arm divs of First Army drive rapidly on Compiegne, Cambrai and La Capelle. WACS begin pouring into Paris from Normandy and England, by plane and by truck convoy.  Philippine Islands are bombed for the first time since 1942 by 57 “Apache” 5th A.F. bombers.  U.S. 4th Arm and Polish 1st Arm divs make for the Somme R.  Aircraft, warships and artillery pound Ile de Cezembre, off St Malo.  U.S. Army Communiqué announces that the number of prisoners taken in southern France campaign had amounted to over 55,000 German troops, with 35,000 captured by the FFI.  U.S. 36th “Texas” Div surrounds city of Lyon. U.S. Coast Guard cutter Northland locates German weather ship Kehlingen off Great Koldeyey Is. Greenland, but Kehlingen scuttles ship to avoid capture.  Off Toulon YMS-21 is sunk by a mine. 

Sept 2—Belgium frontier crossed by U.S. 1st Army, as 82nd Reconnaissance Battalion crosses border at 9:30 a.m., near Tournai.  Belgium sits on a map n.e. of France, before reaching Germany; vibrant happiness projected 75 years ago just as today, it conveys a modern fabric of society.   Canadian troops also cross Belgium frontier.  U.S. 5th Army liberates Pisa, Italy.  Allied armor units from the Mediterranean make 34-mile advance in the Rhône Valley; as of date 190,565 troops, 41,534 vehicles and 219,205 tons of supplies have been put ashore through the French Riviera beaches.  For the most part, U.S. 3rd Army still immobilized for lack of fuel.  U.S. sub Finback while on patrol near Chichi Jima rescues Navy Lieutenant (jg) George H.W. Bush, of VT 51, about 600 miles s. of Tokyo; his two crew members did not survive; Bush will eventually become the 41st President of the United States.  Ile de Cézembre (St Malo) finally surrenders, to U.S 83rd Inf Div. 

Sept 3—British Guards Arm Div liberates Brussels, capital of Belgium.  Brussels parade celebrates 75th Anniversary Liberation A 23-year-old army scout Pvt James W Carroll of Alabama, enters Belgium village of Peruwelz on his Harley-Davidson in the midst of retreating Germans and technically becomes the first GI in this village; Peruwelz is liberated.  U.S. First Army liberates Tournai, Belgium.  So how do you pronounce Tournai?  U.S. 3rd Arm Div liberates Mons, France.  1st Free French Div, U.S. 7th Army and Fr Resistance liberate Lyon, France.  Airfield near Reims is sufficiently repaired to receive cargo planes.  U.S. 8th A.F. Thunderbolt squadron led by Maj. Frederick Lefebre and Lt. E. Reinhart destroy a twenty-mile-long vehicle convoy, marking one of the largest in the war, retreating from east Belgium outside Louvain.  U.S. 15th A.F. Communiqué reports destruction of 82 locos, 154 motor vehicles, 190 oil tankers, 110 box cars in Morava Valley, Yugoslavia.  21st Army Group commander Montgomery orders Br 2nd Army to drive speedily to the Rhine, but they encounter rough terrain with myriad water crossings.  The 68th and last transport of Dutch Jews, which included Anne Frank, left for Auschwitz. 

Sept 3-4—U.S. First Army closes Mons pocket, 25,000 enemy netted.  British 8th Army suffers tremendous losses in Gemmano-Croce, Italy.   U.S. 15th A.F. begins “Rat Week” knocking out bridges all along the Eastern Front.

Sept 4—Antwerp reached by British 11th Arm Div.  Polish 2nd Arm Div drives on St. Omer.  U.S. 3rd Army opens new attack to outflank Nancy.  The last torpedo boats stationed in France and Belgium of the German Navy evacuate bases to the Netherlands.  Japanese troops capture U.S. air-base in Lingling, China. AGAIN? Stars and Stripes reveals the break up of a large Sicilian counterfeiting ring in Rome.

Sept 5—British 2nd Army enters Ghent, but enemy continues to hold out in n. sectors for some days.  U.S. 3rd Army crosses the Meuse R.  Rainbow Island released in Technicolor.  Canadian 1st Army reaches Calais area.   U.S. sub Albacore sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Shingetsu Maru n. of Muroto Saki.  Helsinki is liberated.  German troops evacuate areas n. of Florence, Italy.  German troops evacuate Finland.  British sub HMS Tantivy sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Shiretoko Maru off Sumatra.  Off southern France invasion beaches, French destroyer Le Malin discovers presence of something new: sneaky underwater German manned torpedoes, and opens fire; destroyer Ludlow joins Le Malin in dropping depth charges, destroy three torpedoes and capture the crews.  "Mad Tuesday" 65,000 Dutch Nazi collaborators flee like crazy to Germany.  U.S 9th Army becomes operational in Brittany. USSR declares war on Bulgaria.   

Sept 6—Two V-2 missiles launched at Paris, but they misfire and never fly.

Sept 7—U.S. 1st Army fights its way into Liège, Belgium.  Soviet spearheads do not move into Warsaw, as the city fighting enters seventh week.  Through the Polish Red Cross, a short cease fire is obtained in Warsaw, several thousand civilians allowed to leave.  From bases in China, 108 B-29s hit the Showa Steel Works in Ansan, Manchuria.

Sept 7-8—U.S. carrier planes destroy Japanese planes at Yap and Palau.  U.S. sub Paddle torpedoes transport Shinyo Maru carrying American and Filipino POWs; about 667 prisoners were lost out of 750; the Japanese had thrown grenades into the holds of the ship and those that escaped and floated at sea were being shot or wacked on the head with Japanese sabers, but 83 survivors swam to a nearby beach and were aided by friendly Filipinos; 1 died shortly; 1 survivor was Marine Sgt. O. Clem survivor of Bataan

Sept 8—V-2’s fired at London and Paris. For the first time in history, the Germans employed rocket-propelled missiles as weapons.  Terror campaign against humanity begins; the missile arrives before the sound of the V-2 passage is heard.   Their supersonic V-2 rockets represented an advanced stage of technology in humanity.  The public remains in the dark for two months. Age of supersonic flight enters the pages of history.  U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff directed MacArthur and Nimitz to take Leyte and the Surigao Strait area beginning December 20.

Sept 8-9—U.S. 1st Army liberates Liège (about 11mins, too bad there is no sound.).  Red Army enters Sofia.   Musical Movieland released in Technicolor.  Allies sink Italian liner Rex near Trieste, Italy.  U.S. sub Bashaw sinks Japanese transport Yanagigawa Maru near Mindanao.  U.S. sub Spadefish sinks Japanese transport Shokei Maru, army cargo ship Shinten Maru and merchant cargo ships Nichiman Maru and Nichian Maru.

Sept 9—U.S. sub Bang sinks Japanese transport Tokiwasan Maru s. of Japan.  U.S. Seal sinks Japanese army cargo ship Shonan Maru in Sea of Okhotsk, n. of Etorofu, Kurils.  U.S. sub Queenfish sinks Japanese transport Toy_ka Maru and merchant passenger/cargo ship Manshu Maru and damages torpedo boat Manazuru n.w. of Luzon.

Sept 10—U.S. 1st Army secures small bridgehead across Moselle River.   U.S. Third Army secures small bridgehead at Crévéchamps and Bayon, and liberates the capital of Luxembourg, Luxembourg City.  Grand Duchess Charlotte stated that their love of freedom was “stronger than ever now that the victorious armies of the United States and their Allies have entered the liberated motherland.”  Churchill secretly arrives in Canada by the Queen Mary.  Eisenhower makes a secret visit to Brussels.  U.S. motor torpedo boat PT-206 in Mediterranean gives chase to German explosive boat unit consisting of a control boat and two drones; one of the latter is destroyed.  U.S. sub Sunfish sinks Japanese merchant tanker Chihaya Maru east of Quelpart Is. The Mysterious Traveler on radio, “No One On the Line”  aired Sept. 10, 1944.

Sept 11—Seven synthetic oil plants and two other targets hit by 1,145 8th A.F. bombers, and for the first time since May, Luftwaffe rises in great strength.  Over Schwarzheide, east Germany, a mix-up compounds matters, when U.S. fighter protection arrives late, and 14 U.S. heavies shot down; when they do arrive, 32 enemy planes shot down.  U.S. Third Army crosses the Moselle R. and enters Germany, probes border just north of Trier, near Stalzemberg.   As of date 2,168,307 troops and 460,745 vehicles have landed via Normandy beaches.  British patrols, Scottish 15th Div, cross Dutch border, north of Leopoldsburg.  Dijon is liberated by Fr. 1st Div.  The start of the Quebec Conference (second Quebec Conference) by Roosevelt and Churchill; the agenda principally concerns the role the Royal Navy will play in the Pacific War.  Greek para-military fighters under Georgios Poulos murder 120 civilians in the city of Giannitsa, Greece in the name of an anti-communist operation.  Bulgarian communist leader Georgi Dimitrov ordered, from Moscow, to create the People's Court.  U.S. sub Finback sinks army cargo ship Hassho Maru and merchant No.2 Hak_n Maru n. of Chichi Jima.

Sept 11-12—Night raid against the city of Darmstadt by RAF Bomber Command erases it from map, over 10,000 die in the resulting fire storm despite new computing bomb-aiming techniques.

Sept 12—888 bombers and over 500 escorts of the U.S. 8th A.F. attack German synthetic oil plants.  V-2 rockets hit Chrysler plant in s.w. London; 8 killed, significant damage.  U.S. 5th Army launches major offensive in n. Italy (Appenine Mtns, Gothic Line, which contained extensive minefields and fortifications in the Po Valley.)  German garrisons evacuate Greek islands in the eastern Mediterranean. U.S. carriers begin operations against Japanese shipping and airfields in the Visayas.  Planes from all three carrier groups pound enemy installations on Cebu and shipping offshore. Ensign Thomas C. Tillar, USNR, a pilot from Hornet, is rescued by Filipinos after his F6F ditches off Apit Is, off the s.w. coast of Leyte.  Before Tillar is recovered by SOC from heavy cruiser Wichita, he learns from his rescuers that the size of the Japanese garrison on Leyte is negligible.  That fact, when combined with the lack of aerial opposition encountered PLUS the few airfields that exist on Leyte and Samar, prompts Admiral Halsey (Commander Third Fleet) to recommend that the planned attack on Yap be abandoned and more importantnly, that the date of the landings on Leyte be advanced from 20 December to 20 October 1944.  U.S. sub Growler sinks Japanese destroyer Shikinami 240 miles s. of Hong Kong, and escort vessel Hirado 250 miles east of Hainan Is.  U.S. sub Pampanito sinks merchant passenger/cargo ship Kachidoki Maru (ex-U.S. passenger liner President Harrison carried some 900 British pow’s) and tanker Zuih_ Maru. U.S. sub Pipefish sinks Japanese auxiliary vessel No.7 Hakutetsu Maru off Shiono Misaki, Japan.  U.S. sub Sealion sinks Japanese transport Nankai Maru and merchant passenger/cargo ship Rakuyo Maru in South China Sea, east of Hainan Is; Sealion crew is unaware that the latter carries Allied POWs.    

Sept 13—U.S. First Army crosses the Albert Canal.  British troops cross the Meuse-Escaut Canal.  French Navy enters Toulon harbor.  Over 700 bombers U.S. 8th A.F. pulverize synthetic oil plants in Germany (3rd day in a row).  Soviet troops reached the Slovakian border.  Liberators completely destroy the IG Farben chemical plant near Ausertz.  U.S. captures Roetgen, Germany.  Destroyer Warrington is sunk by hurricane, 175 miles east-southeast of Great Abaco Island, Bahamas Islands.

Sept 14—U.S. Navy planes pound Japanese bases at Panay and Negros.  Red Air Force drops some supplies into Warsaw, without parachutes.  Polish 1st Army and Soviet troops capture Praga, a Warsaw suburb. British forces liberate Maastrich—is the first Dutch city to be liberated—and Gulpen, and Meerssen.  800 Gypsy children, more than 100 of whom were boys between 9 and 14 years of age, were executed at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.  Worst storm since 1938 sweeps the Atlantic East Coast; five ships sunk; over 350 people killed; winds over 100 mph.  Three German V-2 rockets strike Britain; one hits the center of Walthamstow, London, 7 die; the resulting crater was 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep. 

Sept 15—Nancy is liberated by Patton’s Third Army, all roads heavily mined. U.S. Army and Marines invade Peleliu and Morotai islands.  U.S. 1st Army breaks into Siegfried line near Aachen, Germany.  Brazilian soldiers of the IV Corps, 5th Army enter the line in northern Italy, to advance through the mountain ridges of Monte Castello.

Sept 16—Approximately 18,000 German troops with 754 officers commanded by General B. H. Elster traveled northeastward from the Biscayne Bay and surrender to the U.S. 83rd Inf Div near the Beaugency bridge on the Loire, s.w. of Orléans; not Sept. 17.  

Sept 17—Operation Market Garden commences in s. Holland; the plan called for the airborne troops to be relieved by British troops, but they were left stranded; over 6,000 out of 10,000 Allied troops are captured by the time Market Garden ends.  A 1974 book by Cornelius Ryan, "A Bridge Too Far," was based on this operation and was made into a 1977 film.  On the Italian Front, U.S. 85th Inf Div captures Monte Altuzzo, Indian 4th Div attacks San Marino, after the German 278th Inf Div had occupied that neutral country.  U.S. Navy sub USS Barb torpedoes and sinks the Japanese aircraft carrier Unyo in the South China Sea. There are over 761 survivors. 

Sept 18—110 bombers of the 8th A.F. are allowed to drop 1,284 canisters of arms, food and medical supplies (by parachute) against strong wind over Warsaw, only 30% reaches Polish Home Army. Counterstrike by Hitler’s First Army—the most powerful of Germany’s Western Front once more—and Fifth Panzer Army is initiated against Patton’s troops at Lunéville, France, forming the start of the greatest tank battles the U.S. has witnessed in the ETO.  U.S. Ninth Army captures Brest.  Pluto oil system begins pumping oil to port of Cherbourg.  Eisenhower establishes Allied Military Government for Germany.

Sept 19—A fierce 3-month battle begins at Huertgen Forest on the Belgium-German frontier. Matched against the U.S. 4th Arm Div were the veteran 11th Panzer Div with beat up tanks and the 111th and 113th Panzer Brigades with fresh crews and the newest tanks, but no combat experience.  The 111th opens an attack near Lunéville in heavy fog, but at a cost of 50 tanks, and driven off; fierce battles continue for 4 days between all armor near Arracourt.  Luftwaffe bombs Eindhoven: 200 killed.

Sept 20—British Guards Arm Division and 82th Airborne Division have taken Nijmegen. British 8th Army enters San Marino.  U.S. petitions Soviet authorities to continue U.S. air drop over Warsaw; denied.  Frenchman's Creek released in Technicolor.

Sept 21—Virtually all Allied air operations on Western Front cease because of bad weather except near Driel, Holland where 750 Polish paratroopers make a drop.  U.S. 7th Army crosses Moselle R. and the Meuse R.  15th A.F. B-24 Liberators destroy gigantic Baja railroad bridge across Danube, 90 miles s. of Budapest.  Excluding probable, 405 Imperial Army and Navy airplanes are destroyed in the Philippines by U.S. Navy airplanes and over 21 Japanese vessels destroyed in Subic and Manila Bays.   British 8th Army liberates Rimini, Italy, actually the Greek 3rd Mtn Div, attached to the 1st Canadian Div, with the New Zealand 20th Arm Div in support.  The last British paratroopers at bridge of Arnhem surrender; story kept under wraps at the time.

Sept 22—As of date over 380,000 Allied troops have landed through French Riviera.  U.S. 65th Infantry Regiment, consisting of Puerto Ricans, arrives in France.   U.S. First Army goes on the defensive along most of its line.  Fog lifts over Western Front, P-47’s support Patton by destroying and damaging sizable German armor formations in Juvelize-Arracourt.  XIX TAC of U.S. 9th A.F. destroy 120 vehicles and cut 21 R.R. lines.  Boulogne secured by Canadian 1st Army.  Soviet forces seize Baltic prize of Tallinn. End of Summer. {Note: Autumnal Equinox in 2019 is Sept. 23, in 1944 it was a date earlier.} 

Sept 23—Allies sink Italian liner Taranto near La Spezia, Italy. Radio Tokyo reports Premier J. Laurel of the Philippines has declared war on the United States as a result of air attacks on the islands.  Ulithi Atoll is secured by 323rd Regiment of 81st Inf Div; becomes a huge secret naval anchorage on the Carolines; O casualties but, the daughter of King Ueg received mortal wound.  Republic of San Marino declares war on Germany.  Battleship West Virginia reaches Pearl Harbor and rejoins the Pacific Fleet, was under reconstruction since Dec. 7, 1941. German U-859 is sunk by British submarine HMS Trenchant off Penang, Malaya.  U.S. sub Apogon sinks Japanese guardboat No.6 Choyo Maru east of Honshu.

Sept 24—Germans launch counterattack around Lunéville-Arracourt in extremely bad weather, principally hitting CCA of 4th Arm at Chateau-Salins.  

Sept 25—Recounterattack mounted with reinforced German Ghost Division under cover of rainstorm, veteran U.S. 4th and 6th Arm Divisions hold around Lunéville-Arracourt. Final evacuation of some 2,000 Allies from Arnhem.  Warsaw situation, frantic and grave.  The Germans ruthlessly suppressing the rebellion.   Soviet troops surround and disarm Polish detachments serving with the Red Army, e. of the Vistula, Warsaw.

Sept 26—394 B-17s bombard Borgward tank and truck plants in Breman.  The Council of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration ends its second session in Montreal, and allocates $50 million to Italy, primarily for medical supplies.  This is the first extension of assistance by the United Nations to a former enemy country.

Sept 27—Hitler recounterattacks again at Arracourt-Lunéville.  The 445th Bomb Group suffers the greatest loss of any 8th A.F. unit in a single air mission: 25 are shot out of the sky, 5 more crash on landing.  This means 300 Americans did not return to England.  U.S. sub Flasher sinks Japanese transport ship Ural Maru. German garrisons evacuate western Greece so that they would not be cut off in the Balkans by the advancing Soviet Army.  Greenwich Village premieres in Technicolor in NYC.   G.I Journal, a radio show inserted into history and filmed as "Strictly G.I." produced by the Armed Forces Radio Service but on film produced by The Army-Navy Screen Magazine.  At its peak, the Armed Forces Radio Service was generating about 20 hours of original programming each week (thanks historycomestolife for providing an educational tidbit).

Sept 28—RAF bombers drop 909 tons of bombs on Kaiserslautern, Germany, destroying 36% of the town. U.S. sub Bonefish sinks Japanese tanker Anjo Maru in South China Sea.

Sept 29—U.S. Third Army and XIX TAC 9th A.F. fight back counterattack under full power, Nazis forced to retreat from Lunéville-Arracourt sectors.  Canadian troops captured the last remaining gun batteries in the Calais area, which had been hammering at Dover since the start of the war.  U.S. Narwhal rescues 81 Allied survivors of the Shinyo Maru in the Philippines.  Under SS-Major Reder, retreating Germans began a 6-day massacre of some 1,000 women, children and elderly in the village of Marzabotto, Italy.  PB4Ys sink German submarine U-863 in South Atlantic. 

Sept 30—The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, composed of Japanese-Americans from the mainland and Hawaii, disembarks on the 2,600 year old port of Marseille, France and joins the U.S. Seventh Army; 442nd motto, Go For Broke (merci armylawjag).  In the 7th Army sector, U.S. 45th Inf Div and Fr 2nd Arm attack Rambervillers.  Mission Bay sinks U-1062, the last U-boat sunk in the Atlantic by a U.S. carrier battle group.  German garrison in Calais surrenders to Canadian troops.   Balikpapen “Ploesti of the East Indies” first time bombed.  Angaur, Ngesebus, Kongauru and Peleliu declared occupied.  Soviets cross the Danube R. through the Transylvanian Alps at Turnu-Severin.  

Oct 1—Battle of Aachen starts, U.S. First Army begins siege of Aachen, Germany; pre-war pop: 165,000bigger than El Paso, Texas—Gene Roddenberry, science fiction writer and creator of Star Trek was born in El Paso and was a B-17 pilot in the Pacific; received a Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal. Those white triangle-type blocks were called dragon's teeth—part of the Siegfried Line.  U.S. sub Cabrilla attacks a Japanese convoy in the South China Sea and sinks tankers Kyokuho Maru and Zuiyo Maru.  U.S. sub Trepang  sinks Japanese supply ship Takunan Maru.  U.S. sub Hammerhead sinks merchant Higane Maru n. of Borneo. 

Oct 2—After killing men, women, and children without mercy, Warsaw uprising ends with 15,000 treated as soldiers under the Geneva Convention and sent to POW camps, total of 150,000-250,000 Polish Resistance persons died; German losses were 16,000 killed or missing, 9,000 wounded, over 15,000 buildings destroyed, 340 trucks, cars and 310 tanks, self-propelled artillery, armored cars destroyed; 14 libraries including the National Library, 64 high schools, the Warsaw University, 25 churches and 923 historical buildings were destroyed and by war's end, block after block will be leveled. U.S. sub Aspro sinks Japanese cargo ship Azuchisan Maru in So. China Sea, w. of Luzon.  U.S. sub Pomfret sinks transports Tsuyama Maru and Makassar Maru, s. of Formosa.  Japanese army vessel Ryochi Maru is sunk by aircraft off Bantayan Island, n. of Cebu.  LST-129LST-278, and LST-661 damaged by storm, Palau.

Oct 3—The first Messerschmitt Me 262 fighter unit, with 30 lethal jets, was established at Achmer and Hesepe near Osnabrück, Germany led by ace Maj. Walter Nowotny.  U.S. 8th A.F. visits motor vehicles plant at Gaggenau, and knocks it out for two months. U.S. Third Army begins a 10-day attack on fortress at Driant, Metz.  A V-2 hits the Hellesdon Golf Course near Norwich, England, damage minimal; 1 acre of sugar beets damaged.  USAAF aircraft sink Japanese merchant No.14 Nanshin Maru off Zamboanga. U.S. destroyer Shelton is sunk by Japanese submarine RO-41 off Morotai.  Destroyer escort Richard M. Rowell, unaware of the proximity of friendly submarines, accidentally sinks Seawolf, which is transporting U.S. Army personnel to the e. coast of Samar.  Destroyer escort Samuel S. Miles sinks Japanese submarine I-177, 60 miles north-northeast of Angaur, Palau; an archipelago of over 500 islands.  Destroyer Niblack destroys a MAS boat, damages 3 in San Remo, Italy, harbor, and bombards Oneglia harbor.  Then after receiving fire from German 88s, she shifts target to those guns and knocks them out.

Oct 4—Large German counterattack around Aachen sector halted by U.S. 1st Army.  PBYs sink Japanese cargo ship Tateishi Maru and auxiliary sailing vessels Kigen Maru and Kiku Maru, Jolo, Philippines. U.S. sub Flasher sinks Japanese army cargo ship Taibin Maru in So. China Sea n. of Luzon. LCT-579 is sunk by mine off Palau.  British sub HMS Rover damages Japanese auxiliary sailing vessel Mie Maru. A German V-2 rocket hits Rockland St. Mary 6 miles s.e of Norwich, England.  It hits the village school directly, injuring 2 adults and 34 children, and the blast damaged 23 houses nearby. It was the worst attack on the Norwich region during the war.  All V-rocket attacks still censored to the public. British troops land at Crete.  U.S. troops from Coast Guard Eastwind capture a German weather station at Little Koldeyey, Greenland. Anti-fascist partisan army, the ELAM, led by Communists, controls much of Greece's countryside; ELAM soldiers number about 50,000.

Oct 4-9—Baseball World Series, St. Louis Cardinals and St. Louis Browns at Sportsman's Park; third and final time in World Series history in which both teams from same city had the same home field.  The Cardinals won.

Oct 5—Pluto to Cherbourg abandoned.

Oct 6—German recounterstrikes with reserves at Aachen but is halted by U.S. 1st Army.  Dr. Ernest Charlton, GE scientist, announces X-ray machine that can take pictures through a foot of steel has been perfected.  U.S. sub Whale sinks transports Akane Maru and Kinugasa Maru in the South China Sea.  British sub HMS Tally Ho sinks Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 2, 110 nautical miles w. of Penang, Malaya.  U.S. sub Seahorse sinks Japanese Coast Defense Vessel No. 21n.w. of Cape Bojeador, Luzon. Dutch sub Zwaardvisch sinks German submarine U-168 in Java Sea.  8th A.F. deals a death blow on Arado aircraft assembly plant at Neubrandenburg.  First Air Force Night fighters land on Chengtu, China.  

Oct 7—The first and only time in the war a pilot scores two jet victories in one mission: pilot Lt.Urban Drew in a P-51 hits two Me 262s over Achmer Airfield.  In South China Sea, U.S. subs Cabrilla and Baya sink a transport each.  Flying Fortresses hit German oil centers and find enemy resistance surprising over Germany, in fierce air combat the 8th A.F. looses forty-one aircraft; Germany over 20.  Three famous WW II popular songs connected to the air corps: Bing Crosby sings The Army Air Corps and The Bombardier’s SongComing in on a Wing and a Prayer.  B-17s land on Letisko Tri Duby airfield bringing supplies and OSS operatives, led by naval Lieutenant James H. Green, to aid the anti-Nazi resistance in Slovakia and bring out 15 downed Allied pilots.  In Auschwitz, Jewish prisoners go on revolt and escape, but revolt was put down. Navy beats Penn State 55-14.

Oct 8—Elements of U.S. Ninth Army reached Aachen, Germany.   Project Pigeon/Project Orcon cancelled, a U.S. Navy secret project working with the Univ. of Minn. to design and deploy missiles piloted by pigeons.  Debut of "The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet" on CBS Radio.  Czechoslovakian 1st Armored Brigade deployed to the British 2nd Army in France.  U.S. sub Hoe sinks army transport Kohoku Maru in South China Sea. 

Oct 9U.S. sub Croaker sinks freighter Shinki Maru.  U.S. sub Sawfish sinks merchant tanker Tachibana Maru.  Churchill and Stalin meet in Moscow.  Refit U.S. carrier Yorktown departs Puget Sound. 

Oct 10—U.S. carriers Franklin and Wasp launch strikes against Okinawa. 24-hour surrender ultimatum sent to Aachen, Hitler refuses.  U.S. Navy carrier strike force TF38 destroys 93 airplanes and 12 ships of more than 500 tons near Manila. U.S. sub Barb sinks transport Gokuku Maru n.w. of Hirado Jima, Kyushu.   U.S. sub Lapon sinks transport Ejiri Maru in South China Sea w. of Luzon.  The first Black-American armored unit to battle in the ETO (the 761st) arrives in France.  British troops capture Corinth, Greece.  German Army Group E starts its final retreat from Greece. German Army puts down the anti-Tiso rebellion in Slovakia; Josef Tiso was pro-Nazi, led Slovakia and was a Roman Catholic priest, not to be confused with Josip B. Tito who fought the Nazis in Yugoslavia and led his country to independence from the Soviet Union. 

Oct 11—Heavy air and artillery bombardment on Aachen.  U.S. sub Tang sinks merchant cargo ships Joshu Go and Oita Maru in Formosa Strait.  Soviet troops capture Cluj, capital of Transylvania.  An American Romance premieres in Technicolor in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Oct 12—U.S. 3rd Fleet delivers 1,378 aircraft attack on the installations on Formosa (Taiwan), regarded as the strongest and best-developed base south of Japan, 396 enemy aircraft and 27 ships destroyed; almost 50 U.S. planes are shot down.  U.S. Home Front built aircraft carriers Intrepid, Hornet, Franklin, Lexington, Bunker Hill, Wasp, Hancock, Enterprise, and Essex, plus light carriers Independence, Princeton, Belleau Wood, Cowpens, Monterey, LangleyPrinceton, Cabot, and San Jacinto compose U.S. 3rd Fleet, alongside battleships Alabama, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Washington and 17 cruisers and 63 destroyers.  From China, first B-29’s land on Guam.  U.S. sub Ray sinks transport Toko Maru off Mindoro.  British sub HMS Strongbow sinks cargoship Manryo Maru in Strait of Malacca.   Light cruiser Miami shoots down 2 Japanese aircraft off Okinawa.  Port of Boulogne opens for service. U.S. 92nd Inf Div the "Buffalo Soldiers" hit the Gothic Line in n. Italy.   British airborne troops land in Greece and advance on Athens.  German troops evacuate city.  Liberation of Athens breaks with a huge crowd and parade, but today, it and the end of WW II goes almost unnoticed in Greece.

Oct 13—Germans launch first V- bomb against Antwerp, which, next to London, becomes the primary target for these weapons.  U.S. sub Bergall sinks merchant tanker Shinshu Maru off Nha Trang, French Indochina.  Carrier Franklin is damaged when a kamikaze slides across her flight deck and crashes nearby.  Heavy cruiser Canberra is damaged by aerial torpedo.  Main U.S. amphibious force departs Hollandia sails for Philippines.

Oct 14—103 B-29’s strike Okayama; 0 losses, 50 Japanese airplanes destroyed.  U.S. sub Bonefish sinks merchantman Fushimi Maru in South China Sea.  U.S. sub Dace sinks merchant tankers Eikyo Maru and Nittetsu Maru off N. Borneo. U.S. carrier Hancock, light cruiser Reno, destroyer Cassin Young, light cruiser Houston, sustain damages by Japanese attacks. U.S. sub Angler sinks transport Nanrei Maru.  WASP pilot Ann G. Baumgartner of Georgia test flies the Bell YP-59A at Wright Field, and becomes the first American woman to fly a jet aircraft.  Carrier Saratoga and destroyer escort Howard F. Clark damaged in collision during maneuvers off Oahu.  British sub HMS Sturdy sinks Japanese Communication Vessel No.128 in Gulf of Boni.  Army beats Pitt in football 69-7.

Oct 15-17—At the foot of the Vosges Mtns in e. France is Bruyères, surrounded on 3 sides by forested hills. A cluster of 4 prominent hills stick-out geographically n.n.e of the little village.  U.S. 7th Army begins drive to clear woods n. of Bruyères; 45th Inf Div hits northern sector, 36th western sector with 143rd Battalion along road from Fays.  The 442nd Regimental Combat Team (RCT) composed of Japanese-Americans spearheaded, and on the 18th liberated  Bruyères.  Hungary's ruler, Horthy, asks for a non-aggression treaty with the Soviet Union.  He is seized by German commandos. German army occupies Budapest. Count Szalasi becomes prime minister.  Adolf Eichmann arrives in Budapest and orders 50,000 able-bodied Jews to be marched to Germany, on foot, to serve as laborers. 

Oct 16—U.S. Liberators and Mitchells raid Japanese shipping in Hong Kong Harbor and Mindanao Harbor.  Nasty typhoon hits Philippines.  Field Marshal Montgomery halts offensive operations except those to primarily open Antwerp port.  104th Inf Div aids British in opening port of Antwerp.  For past 3 days, U.S. sustains heavy casualties in battle over Aachen.  U.S. 5th Army begins another phase of attack toward Bologna. Soviet troops cross German border into East Prussia.

Oct 17-18—500 U.S. Rangers of Col. H. Mucci, 6th Ranger Battalion, tear apart Japanese radio-radar broadcasting stations at the entrance of Leyte Gulf, night is calm no typhoon.  The Rangers proceeded to erect navigation lights for the amphibious transports to follow three days later.

Oct 17-21—Allied aircraft shoot down over 90 aircraft in air over the Philippines.

Oct 18—U.S. Navy ships begin to pound Leyte beach areas.  Russians cross border into Czechoslovakia.  Greek Prime Minister, George Papandreou, arrives in Athens.  USS Yorktown arrives at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

Oct 19— The 442nd, mainland Nisei-Americans and also Hawaiians of Japanese ancestry, hit the line stretched some 90 miles across the Vosges Mountains eastern France (great information by John Suzuki; follows the historic trail.)  The 442nd Regimental Combat Team (3mins actual vets), who fought their way into Bruyères (2.56min ceremony).  It included the 100th Battalion of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii; reflections of an untold story of a brave Hawaiian.  Peliliu Island declared secured.  Irish Eyes Are Smiling premieres in Technicolor in Los Angeles. Nazis evacuate Belgrade. Hollywood star Marlene Dietrich at the Front. As of date, over 3,000 WACS are in France.  The Transportation Corps shortly sent picked personnel from the United States to form a traffic regulating group entirely composed of WACS; many of the map tracings for routing combat supplies were made by this group. The Signal Corps organized an all-WAC battalion, composed of switchboard teams, message center teams, and teletype teams. This could not be called a WAC battalion because its tables called for combat equipment, and WACS were noncombatants; Signal Corps authorities therefore called it the % 3341st Signal Service Battalion, with the % mark indicating, to the initiate, WACS.  WAC telephone operators worked French switchboards abandoned by the German army; office workers operated with captured German office supplies; cooks and mess sergeants assumed supervision of French cooks and waitresses in the various messes; and the WACS themselves moved into and gradually filled a number of hotels in Paris.  German Army in Greece and Yugoslavia evacuate to avoid a total cut-off by Russian advance.  Adolf Hitler ordered the complete and total destruction of the city of Warsaw, Poland.  U.S. Navy announces that black women would be allowed into the WAVES. 

Oct 20—After a two-day bombardment on Leyte Is., Philippines, invaded by 132,000 U.S. troops of U.S. Sixth Army and 1,528 Marines.  Volcanic Leyte is some 115 miles long and 15-45 miles wide, with a heavily forested mountain range, and about 20,000 Japanese troops.  Invasion convoy consisted of 750 transports and landing craft, supported by a 700 ship armada.  Total invasion force​ about 425,000 men; video about 7 mins, my gratitude to Don Tiburcio.  Two GI's from the 24th Inf Div raise the U.S. and Philippine flags on the beach around 10 a.m.  Gen. Douglas MacArthur lands with the 3rd beachhead wave, steps onto the beach and makes his celebrated return “People of the Philippines.  I have returned!  By the grace of Almighty God, our forces stand again on Philippine soil, soil consecrated in the blood of our two people.  We have come, dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control….”  He then said, “the hour of your redemption is here.”  Japanese shore batteries damage destroyer Bennion.  Escort carrier Sangamon, light cruiser Honolulu, salvage vessel Preserver damaged in invasion.  Moreover, Tokyo seemed to accept reports from their pilots that they had sunk many Allied ships, later exaggerated to 11 U.S. carriers and some 1,200 aircraft.  Admiral Kurita’s battleship force reaches Brunei Bay, Borneo; 789 miles from Leyte.  U.S. sub Hammerhead sinks transport Oyo Maru and army cargo ship Ugo Maru, off Borneo.  U.S. 88th Inf Div captures Monte Grande (near Bologna) and then everything stalls in the mtns of Italy.  Belgrade, capital of Yugoslavia freed.  The Climax premieres in Technicolor in both Boston and San Francisco.  Four photos below, Gen. MacArthur and officers on board USS Nashville; on MacArthur's right is Philippine President Sergio Osmeña returning to the Philippines; some 2,000 Filipino natives literally walked into the American lines following the invasion of Leyte, pitifully starving, some had not eaten for two or three days and were in bad condition.  U.S. forces had more than adequate supplies and food, and in a story rarely told, the Filipinos were right away supplied with food.    

Oct 20-28—German troops holding out along Loire R. near Nantes and St. Nazaire commence big assaults against the U.S. 94th Inf Div, who along with the FFI from Rennes try to contain enemy resistance besieged in the Channel ports Lorient and St. Nazaire—some 60,000 German troops.

Oct 21—Aachen, Germany, a city where 32 medieval kings and emperors were crowned, captured by U.S. 1st Army.  The U.S. casualty list was over the 7,000 mark, with a loss of 200 tanks; over 10,000 prisoners taken.   First kamikaze attack took place near Leyte Island.  Cruiser Australia is first victim of a Kamikaze (the organized suicide attacks by the "Special Attack Force" kamikazes would not begin until Oct 25.)  Because of it’s historical value, content on  Battle of Leyte Gulf  will be expanded.  Angaur Island secured; 45 prisoners taken; 1300 Japanese refused to surrender.  Navy carrier-based planes attack Japanese shipping and installations on Panay, Cebu, Negros, and Masbate.  British sub HMS Tantivy sinks cargo ships No.2 Chokyu Maru, No.3 Takasago Maru, and Otori Maru in Makassar Strait.

Oct 22—U.S. 6th Army liberates Tacloban City, capital of Leyte, colorized, 1944 goes up to 3.44 min mark only (total 7 mins many thanks to RALPHLAURINO). A visit to the newly opened MacArthur Park, Leyte (many thanks rain campos).  The beautiful beaches  (merci, belle Yang for the wonderful educational presentation) a stone's throw from Tacloban, (first 5 mins best, video from tigershiok many thanks) note the terrain, people and nature were slammed; a horrible Super Typhoon Yolanda (aka Haiyan CNN report) hit it in 2013; read my Historical Keypoints available with Alert: For The Times, forthcoming ebook.  U.S. sub Sea Dog sinks Japanese supply ship Muroto s.s.w. of Kagoshima.

Oct 23—Gen. Douglas MacArthur in a proclamation to the Filipino people declared the Americans had come “as a prelude to the liberation of the entire territory of the Philippines”—it encompassed 16 million people.  He announced re-establishment of the Commonwealth free government under Pres. Osmeña.  U.S. sub Bream torpedoes heavy cruiser Aoba off Manila Bay.  U.S. sub Sawfish sinks seaplane carrier Kimikawa Maru w. of Luzon.  U.S. sub Croaker sinks merchant cargo ship Hakuran Maru in Yellow Sea.  A succession of distinct fleet engagements collectively called Battle of Leyte Gulf Oct 23-26 (the largest naval battle in recent history) follows; content to be expanded: a video trailer of The Battle of Leyte Gulf (3 mins): Japanese battle plan, called Operation Victory Plan, in Japanese Sho-Go—3 Japanese task forces would sweep in from the West on Oct. 25th believing the beach lacked air protective power after a northern force would lure U.S. carrier planes from main invasion beach; but, Japanese underestimated American strength in air power and naval scope.  Another force led by Adm. Shima of 3 cruisers and 4 destroyers would join in to wreck the U.S. invasion beach.  All 3 forces set in motion the approach, consisting of surface ships.  There existed no air elements to protect them.  Subs Darter and Dace attack what proves to be the "Center Force" a powerful force of five battleships (64,000-ton behemoths Yamato and Musashi, plus Nagato, Kongō, and Haruna), 12 cruisers and 15 destroyers.  (Vice Admiral Takeo Kurita entering Palawan Passage), Maya heavy cruiser is sunk by DaceDarter sinks heavy cruiser Atago and damages her sistership Takao, which retreats to Brunei.  Kurita’s flagship Atago sunk. He swam for his life, rescued; transferred his flag to super-battleship Yamato.   U.S. sub Dart follows but becomes disabled next day when it runs aground on the Bombay Shoal; her entire crew rescued by Dace.  U.S. sub Tang sinks cargo ships Toun Maru and Tatsuju Maru and transport Wakatake Maru, and merchantman Kori Go, in Formosa Strait. Soviet army invades Hungary.  Radio program The Whistler (10/23/44) the strange tale of a man who betrayed his country for money.

Oct 24Battle of Surigao Strait (Battle for Leyte Gulf): Adm. Shoji Nishimura’s 2 battleships and 4 destroyers + a cruiser Mogami enter narrow Surigao Strait just s. of Leyte about 2 am in strict radio silence.  Near the cape of Panaon Is. U.S. battleships Mississippi, Maryland, West Virginia, Tennessee, California, and Pennsylvania, plus 8 cruisers (Portland, Minneapolis and HMAS Shropshire, Denver, Columbia, Phoenix, Boise and Louisville—flagship of Rear Arm. Jesse Oldendorf) and 29 destroyers plus 39 PT boats wait in ambush in the darkness.  Within 3 hours, battleships Fusō and Yamashiro hit and sunk; Nishimura was killed. Yamashiro was the last battleship to engage another in combat, historically.  Surviving ships retreat west.  Near 4:25 am, a 2nd force of Japanese vessels enter Surigao battle area with no radio communication and see ships afire, led by Adm. Shima (cruisers Nachi and Ashigara) plus 8 destroyers. Shima orders get the hell out of there but his flagship collides with Mogami; falls behind and is later sunk by U.S. pilots.   U.S. escort carriers Chenango and Saginaw Bay had departed for Morotai, Indonesia and missed the battles. 

Battle of the Sibuyan Sea (Battle of Leyte Gulf): Planes from carriers Enterprise, Intrepid, and Franklin, and small carrier Cabot score hits on Nagato and Yamato, severely damaging Myōkō, and sink battleship Musashi nw. of Leyte at a loss of 18 U.S. planes.  Kurita’s force turns around, U.S. believes it is in retreat, but he turned again at 5:15 pm and made his way through the San Bernardino Strait in the night, to appear off Samar next morning.  [He later receives secret message from Adm. Toyoda Soemu: “All forces will dash to the attack, trusting in divine assistance.”  Kurita replies to fight to the last man.]  Battleships Yamato and Nagato, heavy cruiser Tone, and destroyers Kiyoshimo, Fujinami and Uranami damaged.  Planes from Franklin sink destroyer Wakaba.  Japanese planes from Luzon join battle, go for the carriers Essex, Lexington, Princeton and Langley and the beach all day.  Attacked so frequently, baby flattops had to suspend ground-support operations to defend the anchorage.  They damage destroyer Leutze, tank landing ship LST-552, LCI-1065.  U.S. freighter Augustus Thomas, with 480 troop passengers, anchored in San Pedro Bay, Leyte, is attacked and damaged by a Japanese plane; Augustus Thomas is beached.  Carrier Princeton hit by bomb from dive bomber, killing 200 sailors.  Cruiser Birmingham suffers the greatest destruction because she is alongside the carrier when the latter's magazines explode.  The cruiser's decks are literally running red with blood: 229 men killed, four missing, 211 seriously wounded and 215 with minor wounds.  Japan lost nearly 70 aircraft, but Princeton went to the deep.  U.S. sub Kingfish sinks cargo ship Ikutagawa Maru e. of Chichi Jima.  U.S. sub Seadragon sinks transport Eiko Maru and cargo ship Daiten Maru, and merchant passenger/cargo ship Kokuryu Maru.  U.S. sub Shark is sunk, probably by Japanese destroyer Harukaze, in Luzon Strait.  Destroyer escort Richard M. Rowell sinks Japanese submarine I-54, 70 miles e. of Surigao.   U.S. sub Croaker sinks Japanese army cargo ship Mikage Maru and passenger/cargo ship Gassan Maru sw. of Quelpart Island.   U.S. sub Snook sinks army cargo ships Arisan Maru, and No.1 Shinsei Maru.  U.S. sub Tang sinks merchant cargo ship Ebara Maru in Formosa Strait, then is sunk accidentally by her own torpedo.  Initial stage of Battle of Cape Engaño, about 4:40 pm U.S. pilots discover Adm. Ozawa’s carrier group.  Adm. Ozawa’ himself orders his force to retreat when about 8 pm receives order from high command all forces to attack, from Adm. Soemu.  In the opposite direction is Adm. Halsey’s carriers, and about midnight orders all 3 carrier groups plus battleships of Adm. Lee to pursuit.  All sail to Ozawa through the night. Halsey believes Ozawa’s force contained a full complement of dangerous aircraft.  U.S. 8th A.F. Mustangs and Thunderbolts strike the Brunswick-Hannover area, destroy 61 locos and 346 railroad cars.  U.S. Census Bureau reports that infant deaths at Home for 1943 were 118,484, an increase of some 5,000 over 1942.

Oct 25—Battle of Leyte Gulf has 2 great conflicts today, Battle of Cape Engaño and Battle off Samar, separated by hundreds of miles of sea, the ladder Adm. Kurita passes through San Bernardino Strait 3 am proceeds toward invasion beach and ships of Adm. Thomas Kinkaid, who believed Adm. Lee’s ships were still protecting him; big mix-up.  They were not.  At 5:30 am, Kurita is told of Japanese defeat at Surigao.  San Bernardino Strait left unguarded by U.S. forces, beyond it lies light carriers and escort carriers (aka baby flattops) Sangamon, Suwannee, Santee, Petrof Bay, Natoma Bay, Manila Bay, Marcus Island, Kadashan Bay, Savo Island, Ommaney Bay, Fanshaw Bay, St Lo, White Plains, Kalinin Bay, Kitkun Bay, and Gambier Bay off Leyte.  Main Battle of Cape Engaño: Northern Force of Adm. Ozawa sends 75 planes to attack the Americans, doing little damage. He has 4 carriers Zuihō, Chitose, Chiyoda and fleet carrier Zuikaku, 3 cruisers and 9 destroyers.  It is not a major threat but a decoy to lure the main U.S. carrier fleet.  Many of his planes are shot down by the American covering patrols.  U.S. carriers launch 180 aircraft at dawn, and approximately 8 am penetrate defensive screen of 30 aircraft.  The things they can do with computers nowadays about 8 mins.  All day U.S. strikes Ozawa’s Northern Force ships.  Zuikaku, Zuihō and Chiyoda are sunk.  Destroyer Akitsuki sunk. Ozawa's surviving ships flee for Japan. Battle of Leyte Gulf continues, PT-137 torpedoes light cruiser Abukuma, but PT-493 is sunk by enemy secondary battery. Destroyer McDermut sinks destroyer Yamagumo.  Light cruiser Denver sinks Asagumo at entrance of Surigao Strait.  Destroyer Hutchins sinks Michisio.  Australian warships, heavy cruiser HMAS Shropshire and destroyer HMAS Arunta see the destruction of battleships Fuso and Yamashiro.  Australian heavy cruiser HMAS Australia is hit and forced to retire.  Adm. Kurita's force wreaks havoc on 6 slow escort carriers, three destroyers, and four destroyer escorts.  Various vessels try to hide in rain squall.  Japanese surface gunfire outguns U.S., (LINK recreates sea battle using 2014 technology here) sinks U.S. destroyers Hoel, Johnston, and destroyer escort Samuel B. Roberts.  Escort carriers Gambier Bay and the St Lô sent to the bottom of the sea.  U.S. sub Halibut sinks destroyer Akizuki east-northeast of Cape Engaño.  U.S. sub Seal sinks transport Hakuyo Maru.  U.S. sub Sterlet sinks merchant tanker Jinei Maru s. of Yaku Jima.  Around 9 am Kurita mistook the escort carriers for fleet carriers and thought that he had engaged the entire American 3rd Fleet decides to turn and abandon the Battle off Samar.   United States and Great Britain resume diplomatic relations with Italy.  Soviet forces invade Kirkenes, Norway, beginning limited offensive in Norway

Oct 26—Conclusion of the Battle of Leyte Gulf, video from Victory At Sea.  The Japanese loose 3 battleships, 4 carriers, including veteran Zuikaku, 10 cruisers, and myriad other ships.  The U.S. looses six ships.  In Battle of Cape Engaño, the 3rd Japanese force is discovered and the final threat to the Leyte Gulf invasion is over.  As a striking force, the Japanese Imperial Navy is all but eliminated.  U.S. sub Drum sinks transport Tats_ra Maru, and merchant passenger/cargo ship Taisho Maru and cargo ship Taihaku Maru n. of Luzon.   U.S. sub Icefish sinks merchant cargo ship Taiyo Maru w. of Luzon Strait.  U.S. sub Rock sinks Japanese merchant tanker No.7 Takasago Maru near Balabac Strait 

Oct 27—Eight P-47s of the 405th FS of the 371 FG attempt an air drop for the lost battalion surrounded by Germans since dusk of Oct 24 in the Forest de Champ overlooking La Houssiere, no food, medical supplies and low on ammo.  Visibility was bleak, actually terrible; a P-47 crashed into a side of a mtn, rest forced to fly back w/o dropping anything.  The 442nd began a drive from Belmont to reach the beleaguered Texas 36th, German counterattack hits them; valuable historical research from J. Herzig.  Army Air Force under Gen. George C. Kenney takes over air support missions for Leyte from Navy carriers.

Oct 28—Russo-Bulgarian armistice signed; British and American plenipotentiaries are excluded.  All Bulgarian troops come under Soviet High Command.  Bulgarian troops evacuate Greece.  U.S. 13th A.F. destroys 23 Japanese planes at Puerto Princesa, Palawan Island.  Army beats Duke in football 27-7. 

Oct 29—While U.S.S. Intrepid’s aircraft bomb Manila, she falls victim to a Kamikaze.  G.I Journal, radio show, is a big hit among the troops, aka Strictly G.I. The weekly listening audience of military personnel was estimated at 95.5 million.  U.S. freighter John A. Johnson is torpedoed by sub I-12 1,000 miles n.e. of Oahu, and when ablaze resurfaces and machine guns survivors on lifeboats, 9 killed.  Russian operations in the far north ends.

Oct 30—One hundred miles from Samar, Kamikazes crash on the USS Franklin, 56 killed, 60 wounded, crash on the USS Belleau Wood, 92 dead or missing. Despite mountainous natural barriers and hand-to-hand combat, near St Die, Japanese-American doughfoots of the 442nd RCT​ make contact (about 5 mins, thanks propaganda buster Tony), 3 miles behind the lines, (actual newsreel )with the Lost Battalion of the 141st Regiment of the 36th Infantry Div which had been encircled and cut-off by the Germans; it touches just the outskirts of how really bad the weather and terrain were.  Faded but not forgotten.

Oct 31Life of Riley aired on radio, with William Bendix as the lead character Chester A. Riley, who with his family moved west from their native Flatbush, to take a job in an aircraft plant outside Los Angeles.  Episodes very funny; so popular extended to TV.  (This show really aired 10/29/44.)

Nov 1—Pluto (Special oil pipeline) extension into Boulogne begins service.  Fighting for the Scheldt estuary, the approaches to the port of Antwerp, is conducted by a combination land and amphibious operation at a heavy cost to British, Canadian and Polish troops.  U.S. establishes nationwide air-sea rescue along America’s coast under the U.S. Coast Guard.  Bombed by Japanese Air Force (JAF) 3 U.S. destroyers are sunk in San Pedro Bay, Leyte, with numerous ships damaged.  Crack Japanese “the Imperial Victory Division” lands on Ormoc Bay against no major U.S. or Filipino opposition.   None of the U.S. carriers are nearby.  A B-29 photo recon conducts a secret mission over Tokyo at 32,000 ft, for 14 hours and brings back first target photographs.  First U.S. aircraft to fly over Tokyo since the April 1942 Doolitte Raid.  The B-29 that made history was piloted by Captain Ralph D. Steakley part of a three plane 3rd Photo Recon Squadron, and his B-29 would in a day or 2 be christened “Tokyo Rose”; in the next 20 days, 17 air mission are conducted, but the 3rd PRS would lose 2 aircraft and their 10 men crews.  U.S. sub Atule sinks transport Asama Maru in Luzon Strait.   U.S. sub Blackfin sinks transport No. 12 Unkai Maru and auxiliary Caroline Maru in Mindoro Strait.  U.S. sub Ray sinks tanker No. 7 Horai Maru off Mindoro. Something For The Boys premieres in Technicolor.   

Nov 2Luftwaffe springs a surprise trap on 8th A.F. over Merseburg-Leuna as 400 interceptors (largest since before D-Day) contest echelon patterns; U.S. loose 46 heavy bombers, 28 fighters; Luftwaffe 183.   Bombers of the No. 550 Squadron RAF attacked Düsseldorf, Germany.   Night-time air raid by JAF damages 10 and destroys 2 of 20 P-38’s on Tacloban air strip of MacArthur’s Army Air Force.   U.S. sub Barbero sinks cargo ship Kuramazan Maru in Makassar Strait.   German U-boat U-181 sinks U.S. tanker Fort Lee in Indian Ocean.  British sub HMS Terrapin sinks Kumano Maru in Strait of Malacca.  British sub HMS Tantalus sinks cargo ship Hachijin Maru 224 miles e. of Singapore.  U.S. 28th Inf Div begins drive on Schmidt.  Gen. Bradley, while visiting Patton asks if Third Army can begin offensive alone, since First Army cannot attack until British release 2 U.S. divs.  Patton replies he can on a 24-hr notice.  Partisans seize Dalmatian port of Zara, Yugoslavia. 

Nov 3—Canadians clear all resistance in Breskens, capture some 12,500 prisoners.  Soviet forces reach the gates of Budapest and begin a savage battle to capture it, lasts several months.  JAF attack again U.S. airbase at Tacloban, and also attack airbases on Saipan and Tinian.  U.S. sub Pintado sinks destroyer Akikaze off Lingayen Gulf.  U.S. sub Pomfret sinks transport Hamburg Maru in Luzon Channel.  Chinese 1st Div recovers Lung-ling.  Antiaircraft cruiser Reno is torpedoed 700 miles n.w. of Ulithi by sub I-41 and survives to reach Ulithi.

Nov 4—In a night raid over Bochum, Germany, airman John Riley Bryne recorded in his diary that "the target was a blazing inferno".  Navy beats Notre Dame in football 32-13. Notre Dame’s 1943 team were national champions.  First “Fu-Go” bombs launched by Imperial Japan, a secret method to send balloons by air using the jet steam with bombs dropping over the U.S.

Nov 5—U.S. aircraft carriers of TF38 strike north of Manila, USS Hornet alone destroys 133 aircraft on ground, 29 interceptors in the air; U.S. loose 25.  Airplanes from the Lexington, Essex and Langley sink heavy cruiser Nachi 5 nautical miles w. of Corregidor; other craft in Manila Bay destroyed/damaged.  500 Liberators of the 15th A.F. bomb crude-oil refinery at Floridsdorf with very good success.  76 B-29s fly nearly four thousand miles roundtrip to bomb Singapore’s King George VI Graving Docks with excellent results; docks knocked out for 3 months.  British troops occupy Salonika, Greece.

Nov 6—Kamikaze slams into USS Lexington; 42 fall dead, 5 are disintegrated, 127 wounded. Middelburg, the island's capital of Walcheren captured.  Capt. Charles Yeager shoots down a Me-262 jet at Achmer Airfield. 

Nov 7—Despite poor health, F.D.R. re-elected to unprecedented fourth term defeating Wendell Wilkie (2nd time).  Roosevelt won the election by 3.5 million votes.  U.S. Navy reports 249 enemy aircraft destroyed in air and ground near Manila.  British motor vessel Ernebank rescues 16 survivors of U.S. tanker Fort Lee.  Soviet spy Richard Sorge and his informant Hotsumi Ozaki executed in Sugamo Prison, Tokyo.

Nov 8—Caught off guard outside impregnable Metz, after all-night drenching rain, Germans are surprised by U.S. Third Army new ground offensive toward the Saar, in the direction of Mannheim and Koblenz.   Robert E. Gajdusek was wounded and captured at Metz and later wrote his memoir in 1998: "Resurrection, A War Journey."  Allied troops liberate Veere and Koudekerke and capture the island stronghold of Walcheren in the Netherlands. The trapped battalion the video references is from the 36th which Nisei Americans rescued but note, no part of the video shows the Japanese-Americans.  Some 25,000 Jews were made to walk 125 miles in a brutal forced march from Budapest, Hungary to the Austrian border.  German radio reveals publicly for the first time the V-2 rocket campaign against the British.  Maj. Nowotny is killed after his Me-262 jet crashes.  U.S. sub Redfin sinks merchant tanker No.2 Nichinan Maru in South China Sea.  Japanese land another division at Ormoc and send it into the mountains.  U.S. sub Hardhead sinks Japanese tanker Manei Maru some 90 miles s.w. of Manila.  U.S. sub Growler is sunk off Mindoro by Japanese forces.  U.S. sub Queenfish sinks cargo ship Hakko Maru and auxiliary submarine chaser Ryusei Maru off Kyushu.

Nov 9—8th A.F. P-51s destroy 61 locomotives and 227 railroad cars near Saarbrucken.  Patton’s XX Corps begin attacks to encircle and capture Metz, assisted by 8th and 9th Air Forces.  Rivers Moselle, Seine, Seille are swollen and are a struggle to cross due to rains.   Red Cross wins the Nobel peace prize.  Tank counterattack against 3rd Army forces in Kerling area, s. of Koenigsmacker repelled.  U.S. sub Barbero sinks merchant tanker Shimotsu Maru 250 miles w. of Manila.  U.S. sub Queenfish sinks gunboat Chojusan Maru some 50 miles w. of Kyushu.   U.S. sub Haddo sinks Japanese fleet tanker No.2 Hishi Maru in Mindoro Straits.

Nov 10—British government reveals publicly that London has fallen to V-2 attack.  Heavy land fighting at Dagami, Leyte.  U.S. sub Barb sinks Japanese transport Gokoku Maru 7 miles off Koshiki Jima.  U.S. sub Flounder sinks German sub U-537 in Java Sea.  U.S. Liberators attack Surabaya-bound Japanese ships off Soembawa, and sink No.21 Tachibana Maru, Fuji Maru, and Tsukushi Maru.  P-47s, P-38s and B-25s attack Japanese convoy in Ormoc Bay and sink cargo ships Kashii Maru and Takatsu Maru.  Enemy of Women released, a story of pre-war Nazi Germany Joseph Goebbels propaganda minister, written by an American screenwriter of German descent who worked in Germany until he became a target of Goebbels and the Nazis.             

Nov 11—Fort Koenigsmacker surrenders.  Warships of Third Fleet and land-based bombers bombard Iwo Jima airfields.  Powered by 2 great running backs Doc Blanchard (35) and Glenn Davis (41) of West Point, Army beats #5 Notre Dame 59-0.   (Notre Dame’s 1943 team defeated Army 26-0 when they were national champions and had quarterback star Angelo Bertelli and under Coach Frank Leahy, who had come from Holy Cross.  Bertilli won the Heismann that year when Notre Dame utilized the T-formation; few schools used it.  But ’43 was Bertelli’s senior year, and he headed to the Marines, where he almost got killed later at Iwo Jima.  Coach Leahy (also athletic director) accepted a commission in the U.S. Navy and was not at Notre Dame in ’44; he was a Lieut. in the Pacific.)  347 aircraft from carriers of TF38 attack a convoy of transports in the Camotes Sea approaching Ormoc Bay, sink 4 destroyers, cargo ships Mikasa Maru, Seiho Maru, Tensho Maru merchantman Taizan Maru and minesweeper W.30.   Almost all of the 10,000 Japanese reinforcements embarked on the transports are killed.  U.S. sub Scamp is sunk off Tokyo Bay.  U.S. freighter Lee S. Overman hits mine off Le Havre and is a total loss; 1 casualty.  The first Brazilian Fighter Group, with P-47s, and under the 350th Fighter Group, U.S. 12th A.F., commence operations in Italy, forming their own squadrons and choosing their own targets.  Brazil was at war against the Fascist Powers.  This song was a music hit in 1944 after the MGM movie Broadway Rhythm was released couple of months back, called Amor (Skylar-Mendez-Ruiz) sung by Bing Crosby.  Bluebeard, a sinister love story in 19th Century Paris, a noir classic released Nov. 11, 1944, 75 years ago. 

Nov 12—RAF Lancasters sink battleship Tirpitz (42,000 tons) off Tromso Harbor in northern Norway.   U.S. subs Barb and Peto attack convoy MOMA-07 in the East China Sea; Barb sinks army cargo ship Naruo Maru and damages merchant cargo ship Gyokuyo Maru; Peto sinks cargo ship Tatsuraku Maru.  Destroyer Nicholas sinks Japanese sub I-37 s. of Yap Is.  Off Leyte: Thomas Nelson is hit by a kamikaze, and despite successful firefighting efforts, 133 of the 578 embarked troops are killed, as are 3 of the 28-man Armed Guard; 88 men are injured; repair ships Egeria and Achilles are damaged by kamikazes; Leonidas Merritt is crashed by two kamikazes off Dulag, Leyte, but her crew controls the fires; 1 of the 28-man Armed Guard is killed, as are two others; William A. Coulter is struck by two kamikazes, 0 fatalities; troopship Morrison R. Waite is strafed and then crashed by a Japanese plane, and the resultant fires kill 21 troops and wounds 41; Alexander Majors's Armed Guard gunners deflect a kamikaze with a well-placed 5-inch round, but the plane strikes the mainmast and explodes and showers ship with burning gasoline that compels the Armed Guards at the forward guns to leap overboard to save themselves. Two crewmen killed, 16 injured; all vessels return to the U.S. for repairs.  A special train departs Bialystok, Poland with 1,014 Polish Home Army fighters arrested by the NKVD  for Ostashkov “Special” Camp in Tver Oblast.  A V-2 rocket hits the Bromley Gas Works in West Ham, London.  According to a statement by Indian soldier Havildar Changdi Ram, who was a forced laborer for the Japanese in New Britain, the Japanese Kempeitai beheaded an Allied pilot, then cut flesh from his arms, legs, hips, and buttocks, and proceeded to cook his flesh. The human flesh was consumed in the evening after a speech was made by a Japanese major general.  

 

 

We just had to add this about a 97 year-old WW II vet who jumped again.  World leaders on D-Day 2019. D-Day Veteran Jim Radford, 90, has become an unexpected chart hit with his single, "Shores of Normandy."  Longest Day:  PBS, and Miss Montana.  Behind the lines, Cathedral of Chartres in the background, processing V-mail in Iceland, the Grand-Duke Jean of Luxembourg and his wife Josephine-Charlotte (the Duke fought in WW II), a snapshot of James Carroll in his Harley in the little village of Peruwelz.  Despicable Huertgen Forest.  American carrier Yorktown.   Oct 13, 1944 General Patton presents a Silver Star to Private Ernest A. Jenkins of the 761st for bravery at Châteaudun.  Châteaudun was also a base for the 387th Bombardment Group of B-26 Marauders until Oct 30; subsequently turned into a transport base for C-47s of the 439th Troop Carrier Group.  WACs at an air base in their mobile control unit. 

442 nd RCT and Vosges  includes Nisei

Battle of the Bulge

Bastogne

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