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About 1944 and the commemorative edition

Come learn about 1944; the world changed most dramatically.  To view 1944 Timeline just scroll downward past Glenn Miller. If on a Samsung phone, don't frolick with the wrong pdf reader .  We recommend using Samsung PDF read.  Not all cell phones are created equal. Our author is Robert C. Valentine.  A very informative and important chronology of 1944 is below.  This webpage also describes our book.  Our book attempts to bring a chronological semblance to an era of multi-dimensioned settings that transpired successively with each other at approximately the same time. The author began his WW II research over 30 years ago.   

  Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.

  The above is from The Life of Reason; or the Phases of Human Progress, a quote on the subject history plays, by George Santayana.  If humanity fails to learn from history, if one stays in an old rut and seeks neither innovations or in-depth nosing around, the matter of history turns stale, and not only boring, we fail to learn from our history.  It is much more than just sitting down and reading it fast, or as I saw youngsters do with their history homework, go to the questions of the lesson, and quickly find what matches, and like some rat race go to the next and the next question, a sort of quick copy, grab, paste syndrome setting.  You think you will learn what history is all about that way?  That is learning history at it's most dismal.  The case of lives, civilizations, groups of people chills to a dum statistic.  With the power of computers, we can go beyond stale statistics. There is a difference between learning history and learning from it.  And, the history of the Second World War is no docile set of events. The setting is a world at war but the question to ask is how did it progress?; the spectrum of its flames covered Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, the Pacific, the Middle East, and the Americas.  On the plane of life, the tempo of war was everywhere, and honestly each year was very different from each other, with the cauldron boiling hot in 1944.  Progress, true progress, is a main theme of Valentine's researched volume on 1944 as his chapters guide a reader a connective, clear panorama.  The author Mr. Valentine has an added feature for you, an interesting array of comparisons between today's computer world and how computer technology from the 1990s generated this book of 1944. If interested about the Battle of the Bulge,scroll down to the very bottom.​ Press here and then up to Dec. 11.    

   At one time, American veterans of the Second World War numbered 14 million who were whisked toward their rivers of destiny when they least expected it.   As time passes, their numbers become fewer and fewer.   Those who were on Normandy, intro report on BBC June 5  and from a 75th Anniversary from NBC Nightly News, the first of several honoring the commemoration. 

   About 79 years ago the whole world experienced an exemplary page in the pursuit of freedom and liberation.  That is a theme of inspiration. Here is Kelly Cobiella reporting for TODAY ON NBC, JUNE 6, 2023. From Great Britain also 2023. Special from NBC News, June 6, 2023.

An excellent book, accurate and to the point. My daughter is an avid collector of World War Two History and now has the book! I enjoyed the book immensely. Lt Colonel Burnett B Beach (Ret), WWII veteran ex 12th Arm Div, Los Osos, Calif

Having an extensive war library, I was only too glad to add this commemorative book, A Toast For You and Me, America's Participation for it depicts what took place on the fringes of the war and presents a solid over-all picture. Colonel Thomas D Gillis (Ret), Greenbrae, Calif

The Toast For You and Me book is an outstanding job---excellent pictures, good narrative and some behind the scenes stuff.   Lawrence A Bennett, WW II exThird Army veteran Sacramento, Calif

look at the pic below Sacrifice on the book cover. Recognize it?

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Table of Contents

St Lo, Saipan, D-Day, Philippines, 442nd, Liberation of Europe Paris GI Joe, the start of the Rocket Age

    Because 2019 marked the 75th Anniversary of various 1944 events, and due to the fact that the Grand Normandy Invasion was something special and inspiring, the author has created for us a unique Chronology of 1944 in addition to describing the 1944 commemorative.  We welcome you to explore 1944. 

     We would like you to take a look aour timeline of 1944, which is a novelty; it is a marvelous audio-visual that takes you on a magical carpet ride divided into two parts, the early months and the main, powerful virtual day-by-day chronology, complete with scenes of American popular culture, like Hollywood and old-time-radio.  

     In terms of what is available to history buffs today, there is plenty of source material but, you have to know how to place it in some constructive order, C-47s prep for Normandy’s 75th Anniversary , danke AVweb.  If you are ever in VA, visit the D-Day Memorial in Bedford.  Students are shown in this video who took time to raise money to send Veterans back to Normandy,...much has changed since the time when my dad, a WW II veteran and my brother and I visited Normandy, France, in 1994, and the world was awakening to the grand 50th Anniversary of the event.  Historical information unavailable at that time is also presented here. 

    If you are a history buff, perhaps these 3 links will also grab you.  Do not be grinded to dust by apathy.   Video Link on WW II History with Smithsonian  (26 mins).  View June 6, 1944 here. Video Link on WW II History, the concept of WW II  (46 mins).  Low-cost digitization was really in its infancy when the transformation of turning the manuscript into a book on WW II in color began for the author.  But, if you would like to take a peak on what kind of technology existed some 30 years ago, press the button below. 

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    The presentation of WW II on this site is for both history buffs and the youth of today who know very little about the subject of WW II.  About 79 years ago the whole world experienced a wonderful page in the pursuit of freedom and liberation.  That is a theme of inspiration. Here is Kelly Cobiella reporting for TODAY ON NBC, JUNE 6, 2023. From Great Britain also 2023. The following PDF pages are from the 1944 commemorative, and once inventory is gone, it is gone.  These sample PDFs are presented as a set of pages. They are in low res, and if text is jumbled, use another PDF reader. We recommend Samsung PDF read. Some names you will recognize (and GI slang) such as the Rhineland, Ardennes, Burma, Saipan, Normandy, Cassino, S.O.S., F.D.R., ace-deucey, Stage Door Canteen, Liberators, combat fatigue, Ploesti, and Velletri.    Informative.  Excellent 1944 book.  The framework was very real decades ago and quite international-- four generations remember Britain's D-Day heroes (6 min video).


     Prior to the Normandy Invasion, the story is that you had to have good weather, good enough not perfect but good.  The build-up was from 1943 to Spring of 1944.  May of ’44 was the original landing target, but due to the fact that assembling the landing craft in numbers and their staging was far from complete, it was postponed until June. June 5th was the final secret date. [It was set by Gen. Eisenhower on May 17, 1944.]  What was out there before Operation Overlord?  Here is an interesting link from the Encyclopedia Britannica.   We offer an hour-by-hour account of D-Day, June 6, 1944. 

     The critical weather picture?  Ah, most history books only cover meteorology and D-Day by telling you about chief meteorologist Capt. James Martin Stagg, but there is more to the picture than that.  Americans were involved in that picture which is usually a forgotten picture. A behind-the-scenes look will be forthcoming, like shall we say please stay tuned.  History tip: Colonel B Holzman. 

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Third Army

Captured German prisoners

Saluti da Roma

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The Not to be Forgotten Pacific


D-Day Invasion

lots of color

St Lo

GIs & Freedom fighters

Mont St Michele

Perhaps shrinking PDF pgs may help make it appear better.  PDF samples are low res. Actual book is superb, but our inventory is starting to run very low.

Glenn Miller and his orchestra  (press)

Liberation of Paris


Rockets and Jets

Americans in Great Britain

  What in the world happened some 75 to 80 years ago?   This is only a small sample of the World War II generation, arm in arm.  A peak at the D-Day Darlings, courtesy of Breaking Talents Showcase.

This is part A.  The rest follows below.  Please observe periodic updates, to reflect the passing of time, a 75th Anniversary feature.  The timeline of 1944 with a unique audio-visual experience: 

early 1944 Chronology

—1944 Part A—

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1944 Chronology (cont)


Mar 20 —Cover Girl premiered in Technicolor in Providence, RI; Long Ago was a big hit in '44, Jerome Kern's music, plus Ira Gershwin's lyrics.

Mar 22 —Medium bomb group base "is bombed by red hot cinders and lava clinkers" from Mt. Vesuvius--60 B-25s are damaged.  Billowing clouds of smoke and red glow are seen at Anzio, 100 miles north; scattered ashes fall from Naples to Bari, 117 miles away.  Holders of  "A"  coupons at home have their gasoline allotments cut to two gallons a week.  Target: Berlin: over 1,474 American aircraft participate; 147 Americans missing in action.

Mar 24 —76 Allied airmen escape through a tunnel (took 2 yrs to construct) from Stalag Luft III in Sagen, Germany.

Mar 26 —Gen. Eisenhower approves plan to isolate the invasion area of Normandy by increasing air attacks on transportation system.  Over 500 8th A.F. bombers strike V-1 rocket sites in Cherbourg and Pas de Calais, France; 51 Americans missing in action. In a freak accident, while attacking a Japanese convoy off the Palau Islands, Tullibee is sunk by her own torpedo; C.W. Kuykendall was the sole survivor. 

Mar 27 —U.S. 8th bombs nine German airdromes in central and s.w. France, some targets almost to the Spanish border.  Escorted by Belgian and Czech Spitfires, U.S. 9th A.F. Marauders hit Pas de Calais.  

Mar 29 —76 RAF heavy bombers first-time night bomb railway yards of Paris-Vaires; rail traffic through Paris brought to a halt.

Mar 30 —U.S. Navy aircraft from carrier battle group Task Force 58 begins 3-day attack over Caroline Islands to support invasion of Hollandia; effectively all threats by enemy are ko-ed; TF-58 lost 20 aircraft, the Japanese lost over 120. For the first time in the Pacific, carrier-based aircraft lay naval mines during the strikes.  U.S. 93rd Inf Div. composed mainly of African Americans are attached to Americal Div. on Bougainville Is. and enter lines to gain experience.  U.S. Fifth A.F. conducts first daylight attack on Hollandia with both bombers and long-range fighter escort.  Over Germany, British encounter very heavy losses over Nuremberg—545 airmen are lost, and out of 800 bombers 107 are lost. Night-offensive for weeks thereafter is quietly curtailed.

Mar 30 —Hitler decrees that all German men be given training in rifle shooting.

Mar 31 —Unknown to most of the world the flying boat of Admiral Mineichi Koga, Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy, disappears over the Pacific and no bodies or wreckage ever found.    

Apr 1 —Attacks against Hitler's rail network in the Balkans begin to reach full tilt, by U.S. 15th A.F. and MTO R.A.F.  U-boat 218 lays mines off San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Apr 2 —Soviets enter Rumania—first time during the 1940s the Soviet Union steps on soil not claimed by Moscow.  Allied bomber forces plaster Daimler aircraft and ballbearing plants at Steyr, Austria, met by heavy fighter opposition and intense anti-aircraft fire. First B-29s land in Calcutta, India, after flying 11,530 miles via the Atlantic from Kansas.

Apr 3 —Disrupting major supply artery on the Eastern Front, 268 B-24s of U.S. 15th A.F. hit Budapest's railway yards, gateway to the Balkans.  U.S. Fifth A.F. conducts heavy air bombardment on Hollandia.  U.S. Navy completes air campaign over Carolines, lose 26 planes but destroy 150 enemy aircraft.  British aircraft from carriers Victorious, Furious, Fencer, EmperorPursuer, and Searcher pound on German battleship Tirpitz in Norway badly damaging her at a cost of two planes.

An American in the RAF.   press

Apr 4 —U.S. 15th A.F. plasters the main railway yards at Bucharest, Rumania, stopping immense quantities of German war materials to the Eastern Front; U.S. lost 12 aircraft.

Apr 5 —Public telephone communications to all parts of Ireland and export of newspapers halted from Britain.  U.S. 15th A.F. drops 588 tons of bombs on Ploesti rail targets.  Although not admitted as such, this is the start of an oil offensive in which the U.S. 8th A.F. joins next month.  At Los Alamos, scientist Emilio Segrè receives the first sample of reactor-bred plutonium from Oak Ridge, and within ten days discovers that the spontaneous fission rate is too high for use in a gun-type fission weapon (because of Pu-240 isotope present as an impurity in the Pu-239).  Indian troops fight their way to Imphal, Burma.

Apr 6 —3 Indian Divisions stop a 100,000-man Japanese assault on plain of Imphal. 

Apr 7 —German troops push Soviets back in the Crimea.

Apr 8 —611 U.S. 8th A.F. bombers and 780 fighter escort target central Germany, 363 Americans missing in action; 82 interceptors downed by fighter pilots.  Soviet forces open new offensive in the Crimea.

Apr 9 —U.S. 8th raids aircraft plants in the Eastern Front, at Poznain and Gdynia, Poland. 10 B-17 Flying Fortresses crash land in southern Sweden.  U.S. establishes radio station and message center at Salami Plantation, Los Negros, 3rd largest island of the Admiralty Islands; major airfield established. Theater of the mind: Mysterious Traveler, Beware Of Tomorrow, aired April 9, 1944.

Apr 10—First TV telecast of a movie "Patrolling the Ether" is televised simultaneously on WNBT of N.Y.C. and WRGB of Schenectady, NY.   Odessa, important Black Sea port, falls to Soviet troops.  Aircraft from escort carrier Guadacanal sink a u-boat off Madeira Island.

Apr 12The jungles of Admiralty Is. declared free of Japanese and the South-West Pacific secured for the Allies; 325 Americans killed and 1,189 wounded in the Admiralties; 3,280 Japanese killed. Two main Japanese bases at Rabaul and Kavieng of SW Pacif, with some 100,00 Japanese, bypassed; hundreds of prisoners of war freed but several hundred outside mainland Asia still captured including 'comfort women' part of over 100,000 sexual slaves in Japanese-occupied countries; Japanese and European women went to the officers, one story is of Jan Ruff-O’Herne, a young woman kidnapped by the Japanese; a small number of mixed Japanese-Papuan women on New Britain were still prisonersSisters of War based on Rod Miller's manuscript is about the true story of two Australian women who survived captivity by the Japanese, army nurse Lorna Whyte and Catholic nun Sister Berenice Twohill.  

Apr 13Both U.S. 9th A.F. under command of Gen. Lewis H. Brereton and RAF 2nd Tactical A.F. under command of Air Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham, start air offensive against Normandy coastal batteries.  The Memphis Belle released in Technicolor, directed by Major William Wyler. (He won an Academy Award for Best Director Mrs. Miniver released in 1942.  Wyler later did The Best Years of Our Lives, which also won Academies.)  Buffalo Bill premiered in Los Angeles in Technicolor.  Broadway Rhythm aka The Broadway Melody of 1944 released in Technicolor. 

Apr 14-15Allies bomb German rail targets in the Balkans.

Apr 16—U.S. 15th A.F. bombs Brasnov, giant railway center between Budapest and Bucharest at the foot of the Carpathians—1460 freight cars and 10 engines destroyed—Turnu Severin and Ploesti oil refineries.  In a night raid, R.A.F. Wellingtons bomb river port Severin, and Red Air Force bombs river port and rails at Galati, Rumania.  Soviet troops capture Yalta.

Apr 17—New directive issued by Gen. Eisenhower for air campaign: German Luftwaffe is #1.  German oil industry next on the list.  15th A.F. Fortresses and Liberators plaster rail yards and aircraft component factories in Belgrade.  All roads from the capital city of Bucharest are congested with civilian populace. Howard Hughes sets a new U.S. transcontinental speed record, with a Lockheed "Constellation."

Apr 19—Lend-Lease legislation extended by House of Representatives.  First time U.S. 8th A.F. drops leaflet-bombs over Norway. 

Apr 20—Free French 1st Motorized Div. lands at Naples, Italy.  U.S. convoy of 87 ships steams through Strait of Gibraltar and is attacked by U-boats and torpedo bombers; 3 vessels are sunk.  Turkey ceases exports of chrome to Nazi Germany.  A powerful British fleet attacks Sumatra.  Rumanian shipping companies halt traffic on the Danube due to aerial mines.

Apr 20-21—U.S.13th A.F. with secret night attack capabilities begin to land on Momote airfield, Admiralty Is.  RAF plaster the rail yards of Paris at La Chapelle with over 1,265 tons of bombs, 670 civilians killed; some 4,500 people were pulled out of the wreckage in Montmartre alive. 

Apr 21—U.S. Naval Task Force 58 joins land-based aircraft to bomb airfields and defenses at Hollandia, Wakde, Sawar, and Sarmi; attacks continue on Apr 22.  Seabees and aviation engineers complete airstrip at Mokerang Plantation, Manus Is.

Apr 22—U.S. 24th Inf Div. and 41st Inf Div. invade Hollandia region of New Guinea. 

In a London Times report in reply to allied demand for the cessation of the export of ball-bearings to Nazi Germany, Swedish Government refuses to stop export.

Apr 24—Britain announces a ban on most overseas travel effective April 28.  Friedschafen plants and airbases near Munich are bombed by over 200 8th A.F. B-17s; 14 bombers crash or land in Switzerland.  Rail yards at Bucharest and Belgrade-Ikarus aircraft factory in Serbia bombed by U.S. 15th A.F., most successful raid to date. 

Apr 25Pin Up Girl released in Technicolor.

Apr 26—Japanese sub I-180 sunk in North Pacific by U.S. destroyer escort Gilmore.  Four U.S. destroyers (Frost, Huse, Barber and Snowden) trap and sink U-boat U-488 in mid-Atlantic.

Apr 27U.S. 8th A.F. begins strategic offensive against transportation, striking first Blainville and Chalons-sur-Marne.  Captain Robert Powell, U.S. Army Photographic Interpreter in so. England detects and discovers camouflaged mobile launching ramps for new V-1 rockets.

Apr 28Nine German torpedo boats sneak into sector off Portland, England and attack American LSTs entering Lyme Bay, Slapton Sands while secretly rehearsing for the France invasion and sink LST-507 and LST-531, vehicles on deck were glowing on fire, LST-289 damaged; 749 men are confirmed killed. 

Apr 29Over 600 U.S. 8th A.F. bombers strike at Berlin; a shot-down B-24 crashes into a Volkswagen factory near Fallersleben; 55 heavies lost.  Subs Bang, Parche, Tinosa attack Japanes convoy off Luzon and sink cargo ship Takegawa Maru, and damage Yashima Maru.  Sub Pogy sinks Japanese sub I-183 off Cape Ashizuri, Japan.  British sub Tantalus sinks coaster Pulu Salanama in Strait of Malacca.

Apr 30—U.S. freighter William S. Thayer is torpedoed by U-boat in Arctic; 23 of 41 merchant seamen, 7 of the 28-man Armed Guard and 20 of 165 Soviet Navy passengers perish.  Gen. Douglas MacArthur states he would not accept the Republican nomination for Presidency.

An American kneeling beneath the stained glass memorial window of St. Andrew's Church, Quidenham, England, dedicated to the airmen who lost their lives in WW II.  Most of the 8th A.F. were in eastern England; in about 100 bases. Glenn Miller & his band were based in Bedfordshire.  A striking scene of N.Y.C, Times Square, 3,461 miles from London, 8,625 miles from Rabaul.  In grey camouflage is the Queen Mary. Once it left the harbor, she would sail on her own.  The convoys were too slow for her and she was a mighty tempting target. The Queen Mary is now a beautiful floating museum in Long Beach, California, and the latest word is that the renovation is completed, including her classy hotel.


Chronology of 1944 Continues

May 1 —U.S. carrier aircraft and battleships raid Ponape Island.  Over 100 8th A.F aircraft raid “Crossbow targets.”  Sub Bluegill sinks cargo ship Asosan Maru e. of Mindanao.

May 2 —U.S. troops secure Hollandia.

May 3 —One of the largest convoys in the Mediterranean, 107 merchantships, passes through the Strait of Gibraltar.  In union with all denominations nationwide, Mayor of Los Angeles authorizes a proclamation designating a day of prayer on day which the Allied forces start their impending invasion of Europe.  Jimmy Stewart awarded DFC for bravery over Brunswick on Feb. 10.  A portion of meat rationing is lifted in the U.S.  Spain agrees to restrict shipment of raw materials to Nazi Germany in return for U.S. govt. ending its embargo of oil shipments to Spain.  Sub Sand Lance sinks Japanese transport Kenan Maru off Saipan.  Sub Flasher sinks merchantship Teisen Maru in So. China Sea.  Sub Tinosa sinks merchantship Toyohi Maru off Formosa.  British sub Tantalus sinks army cargo ship Amagi Maru just south of Port Blair.  U.S. destroyer Donnell is torpedoed by U-boat off Cape Clear, Ireland, but survives.

May 5 —Ploesti plastered by 15th A.F. dropping over 1,250 tons.  Entire south coast of Holland declared by Germany forbidden to inhabitants in anticipation of Allied landings.  U.S. casualty list reported as 197,841, including 50,000 killed.  U.S. Sub Pogy sinks transport Shrine Maru off Japan.

May 6 —London announces 23 straight days that Allies conduct furious air offensive over Axis-controlled Western Europe. First successful test flight of the Mitsubishi A7M1, will replace the famous Zero.  Sub Gurnard sinks troop-carrying cargo ships Aden Maru, Amatsuzan Maru, and Tajima Maru in the Celebes Sea.  In a unique close quarters fight, 390 miles w. of Cape Verde Islands, U-boat sailors and U.S. sailors of destroyer Buckley duke it out in hand-to-hand combat after destroyer rams the crippled U-boat unable to dive; U-boat had been earlier hit by planes from carrier Block island.  U.S. sends a ball-bearing expert to Sweden as part of economic warfare to have neutral countries cease trade with Germany. Overnight 3,220,000 leaflets dropped over Belg-Fr.

May 7 —Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz is holding in readiness a mighty U-boat flotilla to slice Allied anticipated sea invasion, exclaims Radio Berlin.  Over 4,500 Allied warplanes shake the Axis-allied capitals of Berlin and Bucharest and other European targets in heaviest assault of the war to date, minimal German interception reported over Berlin. U.S. 8th A.F. sends 922 bombers, 754 fighters.  U.S. Army reports that 181,618 war prisoners are at Home. NBC announces that in the post-war period, NBC will plan to give the American public network television.  The British withdraw from Burma base at Bethedaung.  U.S. sub Burrfish torpedoes and sinks German oil tanker Rossbach south of Murotosaki, Japan. 

May 8 —Frank Sinatra admitted to Mt. Sinai Hospital, N.Y. for throat infection.  Top Secret:  Gen. Eisenhower sets D-Day Normandy Invasion for June 5; subsequently is postponed to June 6.  Protected by 729 little fighters, U.S. 8th A.F. 742 bombers plaster Germany.  Overnight, 1,600,000 leaflets dropped over France by 8th A.F. 

May 9 —From April 1 to date, an approximate total of 15,000 tons of bombs have been dropped on the Balkan rail system and air bases by 5,500 “heavies” at a cost of 123 bombers; 337 enemy planes destroyed.  From England, record breaking 5,000 Allied planes attack Berlin, Brunswick, and 29 German installations in France, Belgium, and also Luxembourg; intensive fighter opposition encountered; 119 German aircraft downed, largest since April 11; protected by 870 U.S. fighters; 6 U.S. bombers lost.  The world's third reactor, LOPO, fueled by enriched uranium, goes critical at Los Alamos. Sevastopol falls to Soviet forces. 

May 10 —German radar stations along the coast of France start to succumb to systematic Allied attack from England.  U.S. Sub Cod sinks destroyer Karukaya and transport Shohei Maru 150 miles n.w. of Manila. 254 8th A.F. B-24s strike at Germany.

May 11 —Offensive starts on Cassino; new tactics to outflank monastery zone and drive on Rome. U.S. moves under cover of heavy artillery.  U.S. Sub Crevalle rescues 28 women and children by evacuating them from Negros, Philippines.  U.S. Sub Sand Lance sinks transport Mitakesan Maru off Tinian.  U.S. Sub Sturgeon sinks cargo ship Seiryu Maru some 140 miles N. of Chichi Jima; henceforth all subs up to D-Day are U.S. unless otherwise noted.  Four U.S. 8th A.F. bombers drop 2,400,000 leaflets over Denmark. 

May 12 —814 U.S. 8th A.F. aircraft bombard synthetic oil refineries of Politz and Leuna, Zeitz, Zwickau, Bruex, Leutzkendorf, and Boehlen & others; damage at Bruex, Boehlen and Zeitz is so severe that the plants are temporarily put out of operation.  U.S. loose 46 bombers of Eighth Air Force, 2 collided with each. 735 VIII FC and 245 IX FC P-38s and  P-51s protect; 10 Allied fighters lost. Almost 200 enemy aircraft are claimed destroyed.  Today’s Nazi propaganda: A hand-picked German force of paratroopers are ready to invade Britain the moment the Allied invasion begins.  Cobra Woman released in Technicolor. 

May 13 —U.S. 8th A.F. dispatches 749 bombers over Germany covered by 737 8th A.F. fighters and 370 9th A.F. fighters. Overnight 1,740,000 leaflets dropped over Denmark. U.S. 5th Army gains slopes of Santa Maria Infante; then takes town.  British Eighth Army expands Rapido bridgehead.

May 16 —Paris radio announces French railway passenger service curtailed or suspended.

May 17 —Carrier-based planes of British Eastern Fleet attack Surabaya naval base, Java. B–24’s of SWPA follow up, night 17–18, with attack on docks. Vital Myitkyina airstrip, the only all-weather airstrip in Burma, captured by Marauder Rangers, and Chinese 89th Reg ordered flown in from Ledo as reinforcements.

May 18 —War news issued: Allies take Monte Cassino.  U.S. takes Wadke Is.  Last U-boat success in the Mediterranean Sea: U-453 sinks a 7147 ton convoy ship.  Ploesti is plastered.  

May 19 —Germans order withdrawal of troops south of the Liri. Destroyer escort England sinks Japanese sub I-16 145 miles n.e. of Guadalcanal.  James V. Forrestal becomes U.S. Secretary of the Navy. U.S. 8th A.F. dispatches 888 bombers over Berlin-Brunswick.

May 20 —U.S.carrier planes begin 2-day assault of Marcus Is.  Sub Angler sinks Japanese transport Tori Maru. U.S. 14th A.F. B-24s attack Japanese convoy in So. China Sea south of Hong Kong and sink cargo ship Shinju Maru, damage Kori Maru and Tsukuba Maru.  288 B-17s and B-24s of U.S. 8th A.F. target Orly, Reims, Liege, Brussels. 

May 21 —Specific Allied fighters begin Operation CHATTANOOGA CHOO-CHOO against German train movements in France-western Germany.  Oiler Neches is damaged by a mine 630 miles west of Los Angeles, California.

May 23 —Paris announces French railway system is in chaos.  U.S. Fifth Army breaks out of Anzio, aided by Allied air interdiction operation. Destroyer escort England sinks Japanese sub R-104 250 miles from Kavieng, capital of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.  German forces in France visited by 814 U.S. 8th A.F. bom.

May 25-26 —U.S. troops occupy Cisterna and Velletri at the foot of the extinct volcanoes of the Albans, leaving the Sacco-Liri Valley.   

May 26 —Creating a deception for German spies, look alike British actor Meyrick Clifton-Jones poses as Gen. Montgomery and departs England for a 1000-mile journey to Gibraltar and Algeria, North Africa.

May 27 —Fierce fighting engulfs U.S. Fifth Army at Artena which fails to reach Highway #6 (Via Casilina).  British 8th Army crosses Liri R. occupies Ceprano.  All military and civilian mail impounded in England.

May 28 —U.S. 8th A.F. bombards central German oil targets.  This Happy Breed premieres in Technicolor in London.   U.S. 1st Arm Div halted at Campoleone RR station by fierce opposition.  36th holds below Velletri.  British 8th Army takes command of U.S. 3rd Inf Div.  It Happened Tomorrow released.  

May 29 —Block Island torpedoed by U-boat 549 near the Azores and sinks, 674 US sailors rescued from the stricken escort aircraft carrier and taken to Casablanca; destroyers Ahrens and Eugene E. Elmore hunt U-boat and sink her.  The 8th A.F. strikes 5 FW and 2 Messerschmitt plants in E. Germany and Poland.  Airborne German paratroopers capture Yugoslavian base at Drvar; Marshal Tito and Maj. Randolph Churchill, son of Winston Churchill, barely escape.  Japanese use tanks for the first time in the S.W. Pacific to try to dislodge U.S. on Biak, e. of Parai and suffer high losses.  U.S. 36th Inf Div begins sneaky night march on Mt. Artemisio; mountains are illuminated by German artillery but no one is spotted.  

May 30 —On this date, there are 1,526,965 Americans in Britain.  Tight security mandated on all Allied troops, no passes or leaves.  In man's entire history there has never been a greater combined air, sea and land operation.  All Allied advances in Italy halted by German resistance, the U.S. checked at Albano, Velletri, Lanuvio, and Artena; the British checked at Arce-Ceprano; the French around Lepini.  Out in Italy they played this folk song, the D-Day Dodgers, although not til a little bit later, courtesy of Kevin Macleod.

May 31 —U.S 36th Inf Div seizes radio outpost near Monte Artemisio at dawn—catching German commander by surprise taking a bath.  It was a key enemy observation post.  Hermann Goering combat div counterattacks but 36th holds.  U.S. engineer units follow to carve a road out of a dusty farm track, to help pierce the Caesare Line;  overall Germany lost 2,700 vehicles in last 5 days with 4,838 prisoners.  Warm and sunny over southern England and much of NW Europe. (Below) Devastated Cassino in rare color. 


   Before the Normandy invasion, how many German trains met their demise?  The air assault on the German transport infrastructure barely began to reach full tilt in early Spring.  B-26 Martin Marauders in action after 45 secs. These airplanes were not dreams.  The planes in the ETO had all sorts of names, and they were real in '44 with young pilots and crews who braved it all--Havocs, Maurauders, Liberators, Flying Fortresses, Lightnings, Thunderbolts, Mustangs, Skytrains (actually C-47 mass take off June 6, 2019) and later in the war the Black Widows and Invaders.   

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   Check out the great, big Normandy invasion of France.  It started with help from the Fr. Resistance.  An hour-by-hour account of D-Day, June 6, 1944.  

    A best-kept-secret of some 75 years ago.

    Cartoon that appeared in Yank magazine read: I don't suppose you know where the Post Office is?

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     Above 2 pictures, GI's in Great Britain.  In color, they await the Normandy invasion at one of the myriad ports of embarkation, either late May or early June 1944.   Americans swelled the UK in 1944, whereby in Jan. there were some 750,000 Yanks, the numbers were not 100,000 more or 500,000 but over 1,500,000 in the subsequent five months with a build-up rate of 750,000 tons of supplies a month.

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     In 1944, tens of thousands of Americans headed into the unknown, the greatest number in any war year, each entering his or her own spine tingling tale.  After undergoing training, and bundled with others, many got a closer look at the actual war picture and the putrid smells, and relearned the laws of survival.  You never knew what would happen, but you did your best, a major theme in 1944.

1944 and 1945 would actually be the last two years of WW II.  And, here are two educational clipsa preview of what was seen when people were freed from the horrific concentration camps, and Leo Bretholz recounts his daring leap off a train destined for Auschwitz.

     Ten things you might not know about D-Day from the BBC.

Super Chronology Continues

Jun 1944, Liberation is but a footstep away but it will come at a cost

Jun 1 —Lt. Gen. Mark Clark regroups all forces and initiates new power play but U.S. 34th Inf Div gains little ground near Lanuvio.  U.S. 36th Inf Div captures Velletri.  U.S. 45th and Br 1st Div unable to block escape of enemy to the east.  Canadian 1 Corps moves up Route 6 toward Rome, reaches Ferentino.  Before the cameras began to click, the AFCVM Association invaded Normandy and set up camp for the anticipated grand 75th Anniversary; the AFCVM are historical enthusiasts of WWII vehicles and are rated high by this author.

Jun 2 —First Allied shuttle mission (130 Bombers and 70 escorts) from Italy to the Ukraine is conducted, bombing rail yards in Hungary; the three new American bases are at Poltava, Morgorod, and Piryatin.  U.S. 36th Inf Div advances and reaches Highway #7 before dawn.   German 14th Army begins big withdrawal on Italian lines in the night.  U.S. 3rd Inf Div takes Valmontone.  U.S. 34th Inf Div enters Lanuvio, night of Jun 2-3.  Algerian and Moroccan troops secure Lepini Mtns.  U.S. 45th stymied at Albano.  Formal siege of Myitkyina airfield begins on the China-Burma-India Front (C-B-I), with Chinese tunneling towards enemy.  Raining furiously in England.  Persian Gulf Command U.S. assistance for the other side of the world:


audio, supply line to Russian Front

via the Persian Gulf Command

Jun 3 —OPA begins investigation of hotel over-pricing violations nationwide.  A message at 4:39 p.m. slips out to U.S. and Latin American hemispheres on an AP teletype from London: Flash! Eisenhower’s headquarters announces Allied landings in France (it is false news.)  But Moscow repeated it.  So did CBS.  About 23 minutes elapsed before corrected.  Over 1000 Allied bombers raid Calais, Boulogne, the Chartres airport and n.w. France by daylight. Colonel Krick and Colonel Holzman present their forecast to Group Captain Stagg there would be operational weather conditions beginning June 4, the British disbelief them.  U.S. 34th Inf Div captures Lanuvio and seizes road juncture on Albano.  U.S. 36th Inf Div captures Nemi and road e. of Lake Albano.  U.S. 88th and 85th Inf Divs drive west toward Frascati.  1st Special Service Force (U.S. and Canadian combined special team) progresses up Highway #6.  3rd Algerian Div advances up Hwy #6.  British 8th Army captures Anagni.

Jun 4 —All through Sunday, June 4, the weather over England was terrifying as a wild storm tossed the waters and the rain fell and the winds grew in fury.  Rome falls to the Allies, and is liberated by the Allies.   Gen. Clark designates U.S. 3rd Inf Div to garrison Eternal City as 5th Army reserve; British 1st Bn, the Duke of Wellington’s Regt also to garrison duty.  U.S. 1st Arm Div drives up Hwy #7 into Rome.  U.S. 36th Inf Div advances into e. suburbs of big capital.  1st Special Service Force captures Tiber bridges n. of Ponte Margherita.  U.S. 85th  drives on Via Tuscolana takes Ponte Cavour.  The Spring offensive in Italy had cost the U.S. Fifth Army close to 30,000 men and the Allies 21,000; the Germans some 38,000 men.  On initiative action by Capt. Daniel Gallery on board the USS Guadalcanal, U-505 is captured 150 miles west of Cape Blanco, French West Africa, U-505’s codebooks and an enigma are captured; the U-boat is the only one captured by a U.S. vessel in WW II.  The capture of the U-505 was one of the best kept secrets of WW II.  General Eisenhower postpones D-Day by 24 hours; weather over England super bad.   ETO press release proclaims the oil offensive publicly.  Population of Rome is liberated and it is big news until 2 days later.  Do you know about Windy City Kitty?  The first European capital to be reached by Allied Forces (radio report).

Jun 5 —4:15 AM the house was shaking. Terrible weather.  Capt. Stagg told Ike we would have a little space of good weather to last between 24 and 36 hrs.  Gen. Ike gives the green light for invasion.  Gen. George C. Marshall receives the Order of Suvorov, First Class, of the Soviet Union.  B-29’s fly from China and bomb Bangkok, Thailand in force.  On Salween front, 20,000 troops of Chinese 71st Army cross Salween R.   Sub Shark sinks troop transport Takaoka Maru and freighter Tamahine Maru off Marianas.  U.S. 5th Army gets most assault forces across the Tiber R.  Gen. Alexander orders vigorous pursuit of Germans to Rimini-Pisa.

Jun 6 —Allied Armies storm the Normandy beaches on D-Day.  D-Day French history news report.  Off Marianas, U.S. sub Pintado sinks cargo ship Kashimasan Maru and transport Havre Maru and U.S. sub Harder sinks destroyer Minazuki.  Through the darkest nights, in the pages of time, in ports, big cities, the villages and towns, the plains, the valleys—the youth of today may not be particularly struck by the immensity of peoples and lands still enveloped in evil some 79 years ago. It was so precarious, at any time, the dreaded Gestapo (secret police) could break into your privacy and haul you away.  With the snap of a finger!  Darkest nights covered a range of countries: Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, northern Italy, Poland, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Greece, Czechoslovakia, and of course, Germany before June of 1944.  Far from home, a breeze, nevertheless,  a glimmer of hope, emanated on the continent behind many curtains, customs and languages—the breeze of freedom. The oddest timing was in 2019: when actually all 75th Anniversaries of 1944 were blessed by God,  7-8 months ahead were clear and not skewered or plagued, a historic timing was clean of COVID-19, that struck terror and rupture hearts, the scourge of COVID-19 did not arrived until 2020.

Jun 5 —4:15 AM the house was shaking. Terrible weather.  Capt. Stagg told Ike we would have a little space of good weather to last between 24 and 36 hrs.  Gen. Ike gives the green light for invasion.  Gen. George C. Marshall receives the Order of Suvorov, First Class, of the Soviet Union.  B-29’s fly from China and bomb Bangkok, Thailand in force.  On Salween front, 20,000 troops of Chinese 71st Army cross Salween R. U.S. sub Shark sinks troop transport Takaoka Maru and freighter Tamahine Maru off Marianas.  U.S. 5th Army gets most assault forces across the Tiber R.  Gen. Alexander orders vigorous pursuit of Germans to Rimini-Pisa.

Jun 6 —Allied Armies storm the Normandy beaches on D-Day.  D-Day French history news report.  Off Marianas, U.S. sub Pintado sinks cargo ship Kashimasan Maru and transport Havre Maru and U.S. sub Harder sinks destroyer Minazuki.  Through the darkest nights, in the pages of time, in ports, big cities, the villages and towns, the plains, the valleys—the youth of today may not be particularly struck by the immensity of peoples and lands still enveloped in evil some 79 years ago. It was so precarious, at any time, the dreaded Gestapo (secret police) could break into your privacy and haul you away.  With the snap of a finger!  Darkest nights covered a range of countries: Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, northern Italy, Poland, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Greece, Czechoslovakia, and of course, Germany before June of 1944.  Far from home, a breeze, nevertheless,  a glimmer of hope, emanated on the continent behind many curtains, customs and languages—the breeze of freedom. The oddest timing was in 2019: when actually all 75th Anniversaries of 1944 were blessed by God, a historic timing was clean of what struck terror and ruptured hearts,  7-8 months ahead were clear and not skewered or plagued by the scourge of COVID-19. 

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Jun 8 —American and British troops make contact and link at Port-en-Bessin. The two U.S. beaches link up at Isigny.  John MacVane, NBC tried a broadcast from Omaha Beach, timing it to coincide with NBC’s morning broadcast. Everybody in the NBC London office was surprised by his report from the Front. One of the censors Roy Trouncer exclaimed, “We’re getting John from the beachhead. It’s coming in fine”, and it was sent to an army transmitter. A big U.S. Army relay transmitter was located in London. It was to pick up official transmissions from BBC, and CBS and NBC affiliates and boost them on to the networks in New York. But the first broadcast from Normandy was not to be.  Army Signal Corps officials in London stopped the re-transmittal because it was not official. Nobody outside BBC and the Army Signal Corps ever heard it.  Luftwaffe conducts small raid over Britain; the first since D-Day.  U.S. 8th A.F. dispatched 1178 bombers and1353 escort aircraft over French targets.  Off Normandy, a German Heinkel He.177 badly damages U.S. destroyer USS Meredith; it breaks in half and sinks the next day.  U.S. sub Hake sinks Japanese destroyer 20 miles sw. of Cape San Augustin, Mindanao.  U.S. sub Rasher sinks Shioya in Celebes Sea.  U.S. sub Swordfish sinks destroyer Matsukaze off Chichi Jima.  U.S. sub Harder sinks destroyer Tanikaze in Sibitu Passage. 

Jun 9 —Allied air forces operate from France.  U.S. First Army makes significant progress on drive for port of Cherbourg.  Chinese 71st Army begins attack in Lung-ling.  Air combat over Europe, the difficulties on the Italian Front, and new Cadet Nurses from United News (about 9 mins).

Jun 10 —82nd Airborne captures Mentebourg rail station. Germans still hold Carentan but U.S. 101 Airborne moves in for the kill.  U.S. reach St-Lô Bayeux highway.  L' Anniversaire du Débarquement en Normandie, merci Pernelle Pouteau.  U.S. 9th Inf Div lands on Normandy.  U.S. resupplies Chinese by air at Lung-ling.   46 P-38 Lightnings of U.S. 15th A.F. conduct daring long-range attack on Ploesti; and destroy 23 enemy aircraft but lost 22 P-38s.   German Luftwaffe conducts surprise raid on U.S. shipping off Anzio damage freighter Tarleton Brown, minesweeper Symbol, LST-211 and LCI-41. 609 heavy bombers and over 1000 escort and fighter bombers of U.S. 8th A.F. hit tactical targets in France, airfields and choke-points.  Soviet 21st Army attacks Finland.  Secret test flight of P-80 jet in California, can attain speed of 580 mph at an altitude of 39,300 ft.   SS Division (Das Reich) burns entire French village of Oradour-sur-Glane locking 642 inhabitants in barns and the church and roasting them alive; entire village never rebuilt, forever standing as a silent monument to Nazi atrocities

Jun 11 —U.S. 36th Inf Div advances 65 miles n. of Rome. U-boat U-490 is sunk in the South Atlantic by planes of U.S. carrier Croatan and her destroyer group, entire German crew is captured.  U.S. naval aircraft strike enemy airbases on Marianas; U.S. lost 12 aircraft of 225; Japanese lost between 147 to 215 planes.  Japanese attack in strength across Liuyang R. in China.  U.S. sub Redfin sinks tanker Asanagi Maru w. of Jolo.   U.S. sub Barb sinks Chihaya Maru and Toten Maru in Sea of Okhotsk.  U.S. battleships off Normandy pound Carentan in support of taking town.  6 German PT boats sneak in, cause havoc and sink LST-496, tug Partridge and damage LST-538 and destroyer Nelson off Normandy.

Jun 12 —Destructive fire rains on Carentan night of 11-12; Germans abandon town. U.S. soldiers secure Carentan.  U.S. 8th A.F. bombers plaster 16 German airfields, six RR bridges in NW France with 691 B-17s and 586 B-24's w/988 fighters protecting bombers or sweeping all over France as far as Paris.  Senate passes a modified “GI Bill” costing an estimated $3 to 6.5 billion.  The third wave of U.S. Army divisions are largely ashore on Normandy.  U.S. sinks 16 Japanese ships off the Mariana Islands.  British sub HMS Stoic sinks transport Kainan Maru off Siam. 

Jun 13 —First V-1 (rocket) fired against England. A V-2 Rocket prematurely is launched by Germans, hitting countryside n. of Kalmar, Sweden.  British government purchases the wreckage.  Part of U.S. 1st Army drives to Cherbourg; rest of army halts southward attack. 101st and 2nd Armor Divisions heroically defend Carentz and Carentan-Périers highway.  Liberty ships operate from the port of Rome. Carentan Liberty Anniversary, merci Paul Lesauef. Just n. of Borneo, a Japanese naval armada pulls out of the heavily guarded port of Tawi Tawi, including 4 battleships and 6 prized carriers, for a “decisive naval battle” with the U.S.  U.S. carriers continue attacks on air fields on Saipan and Tinian; minimal opposition while battleships and destroyers bombard those islands for 2 days.  Vilno is liberated, becoming the second European capital to be free.  Joint Chiefs in Washington ask both MacArthur and Nimitz to bypass Philippines and Formosa.  U.S. sub Barb sinks army transport Takashim Maru in Sea of Okhotsk.

Jun 14-15 —During the night, Flight Lt. J.G. Musgrave of 605 Squadron is the first pilot to shoot down a V-1 over the English Channel; he flew a Mosquito. 

Jun 15 —Invasion fleet strikes at the Marianas, 1,350 miles from Tokyo and 5,000 miles from San Francisco.  A colossal number of ships including 67 destroyers, 22 cruisers, seven new battleships--each named after a state: Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Dakota, and the Washington, protect troop transports carrying U.S. Marines from the 1st Brigade, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Marine Divisions plus the 27th Inf Division; 375,000 Americans in all; island of Saipan invaded, marking 1st large and heavily defended land mass in the central Pacific assaulted.  All protected by a dozen baby flattops plus 8 light class carriers: Belleau Wood, Cabot, Cowpens, Langley, Monterrey, Princeton, San Jacinto PLUS the pride of the Pacific Fleet 7 heavy “Essex” class carriers: Bunker Hill, Enterprise, Essex, Hornet (II), Lexington (II), Wasp (II) and the Yorktown.  By dusk, 20,000 Americans were on Saipan Is.  B-29’s  make first attack on Japanese homeland, dropping  221 tons on Yawata Imperial Works in modern-day Kitakyushu; the first raid since Doolittle.  Jeep carrier Solomons sinks U-860 in South Atlantic. German V-1 terror campaign begins; in first 24-hours 244 fly toward British shores.  Translation: the Axis are not going to fold over and quit.  RAF hits patrol boat base in Boulogne, France, eliminating once-and-for-all all enemy threats to Normandy shipping.

Jun 16 —Oil refineries around Vienna are bombed by 658 U.S. Liberators of U.S. 15th A.F.; 14 lost.  AIrfields, V-weapon sites in France bombed by 313 U.S. 8th A.F. bombers; 1 lost. The incomplete Italian aircraft carrier Aquila damaged by Allied air raid on Genoa.

Jun 17—U.S. 1st Army breaks to the w. coast of Cherbourg.  Hitler refuses demand by Gen. Rommel to evacuate the peninsula of Cherbourg.  U.S-Allied ships land Free French troops on Elba.  Daredevil ace 1st Lt. William Y. “Willie” Anderson of the 356th Fighter Sq shoots down a V-1; first U.S. pilot to record a V-1 kill; assigned to U.S. 9th A.F., 354th FG; born in Sweden; once flew through the Eiffel Tower in Paris; decorated with 30 medals. PB4Y-1 sinks Japanese sub RO-117.  U.S. Hake sinks transport Kinshu Mari off Davao.  Escort carrier Fanshaw Bay hit by Japanese bomber off Marianas but survives.    Adm. Spruance postpones Guam invasion after a report via submarine Cavalla, 15 or more enemy ships sighted some 780 miles west of Saipan, a naval battle appears imminent. The government of Iceland cuts its ties with the Danish throne and established an independent republic. 

Mulberry before the storm. Learning about the Mulberry Harbor, (educational euronews).

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Jun 19—U.S. soldiers secure Bricquebec.  Violent storm with high winds begins to lash out at Normandy coast (above).  The worst storm in forty years.  Drums of war beat high in the air over the Marianas, U.S. carrier planes engage huge force of aircraft from Japanese carriers, known as The Battle of the Philippine Sea— Battleships South Dakota and Indiana hit and damaged.

Jun 20—1,361 bombers and 729 escorts of the U.S. 8th A.F. attack oil targets in Hamburg-Harburg-Ostermoor-Misburg-Politz-Magdeburg, the missions are very successful; 48 heavies downed. All German Air Forces placed under control of Albert Speer.  Vicious storm continues to pound Normandy.  Final phase of air Battle of the Philippine Sea:  U.S. finds enemy carriers well w. of Saipan;  U.S. sub Cavallo sinks Japanese carrier Shokaku, U.S. sub Albacore sinks Japanese carrier Taiho; Japanese carrier Hiyo sunk by U.S. aircraft, 2 Japanese destroyers sunk, and a battleship, 3 cruisers, 1 destroyer damaged; U.S. looses 130 aircraft; 73 are lost because they cannot locate carriers or run out of fuel; in the end, Japanese lost, counting shore-based aircraft,  over 544 aircraft.  U.S. aircraft from carrier Suwannee sink Japanese sub I-184  20 miles s. of Guam.  Cherbourg is besieged. Valonges is liberated by U.S. troops.  British fly jet fighter (Meteor) to intercept German V-1’s over London.

Jun 21—U.S. 8th A.F. devastates oil refinery at Ruhland, s. of Berlin; the capital is also bombed; 114 B-17s and 70 P-51s fly on to Soviet bases.  Night attack on base at Poltava by Luftwaffe.   Two Coast Guard cutters sink in vicious Normandy storm.

Jun 22—Operation Zebra: B-17s make special drop of 2,077 containers of arms and supplies to FFI (French Resistance).  Luftwaffe inflicts a surprise raid on First U.S. shuttle-bombing airbase, (Ukraine from U.K.) resulting in 47 U.S. aircraft destroyed and 29 damaged.  Cherbourg is bombed by 1000 bombers.  Soviet summer offensive begins. F.D.R. signs the “GI Bill” into law.

Jun 23—Storm abates at Normandy; unloading resumes.  Outer defenses of Cherbourg penetrated.  U.S. Hellcats and Helldivers bomb Iwo Jima; loose 5; 66 Japanese aircraft destroyed.

Jun 24—In the vicinity of the Azores, 2,564 ton Japanese sub I-52 is sunk by carrier aircraft of Bogue. First C-46 supply transports land on Saipan.  U.S. sub Tang torpedoes Tomahoku Maru, unbeknownst was carrying 772 Australian, British and American prisoners; 560 dead.  Japanese planes attack U.S. shipping off Saipan in the night, damage 4 vessels.

Jun 26—U.S. 8th A.F. bombs oil plant at Drohobyez, Poland from its base in the USSR and flies to Italy; the 8th remains in Italy long enough to fly a mission with the 15th A.F. over Italy. Garrison commander of Cherbourg surrenders with his troops. Factory-made invasion harbor.

Jun 27—As of date, 31 Allied air squadrons are operating from the Normandy-beach areas.  Port of Cherbourg captured, the first major objective in the campaign to be attained; 25,000 German prisoners were taken in the Cherbourg area.  Bathing Beauty (aka The Co-Ed) premieres in Technicolor in NYC. 

Jun 28—Thomas Dewey and John Bricker acquire the nominations for President and Vice-President at the Republican convention held in Chicago.  Second White Russian troops take Mogilev, just outside Minsk.

Jun 29—American Red Cross announces development of a serum to prevent measles. Generals Rommel and von Rundstedt propose a secret withdrawal from Normandy, Hitler refuses.  U.S. sub Sturgeon torpedoes Japanese troop transport Toyama Maru, death toll 5,400.

Jun 30—The U.S. Army Air Force reaches a peak strength of 78,757 aircraft, becoming the largest air force in the world.  Roosevelt signs the congressional resolution granting the Philippines independence as soon as the Japanese are ejected. A total of 452,450 Allied troops have come ashore at Normandy. A total of 570 ships and 180 troop transports have reached Normandy assault area in supply convoys to date. 101st Airborne relieves 4th Inf at Cherbourg.  Transporting Japanese troops from Korea to Japan, Nikkin Maru (former American-built Golden West) is sunk by U.S. sub Tang in Yellow Sea, death toll exceeds 3000.

July 1-22—Representatives from 44 countries participated in the planning process of the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference meeting in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to plan for the post-war international financial system and presented the proposals to their home governments for approval.  Delegates proposed the creation of the International Monetary Fund, with a net credit of $8.8 billion, to help stabilize national currencies after the war, and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (later called the World Bank) with $10 billion.

July 2—Budapest bombed by 712 U.S. heavies. Von Rundstedt resigns command of German forces in France. Ensign Frederick L. Moore from the carrier Wake Island sinks U-543 in S. Atlantic at night.  Japanese sub I-8 torpedoes Liberty ship Jean Nicolet sailing from San Pedro, Calif; the crew abandons ship 900 miles s. of Ceylon but survivors were ordered to swim to sub, and on board some were beaten, others bayoneted before pushed overboard; a British B-24 approaches and sub dives with about 30 men still tied to the deck who drown.

July 3—In driving rain. U.S. First Army opens new offensive in Normandy, France; the rain prevents air support. Russians capture Minsk.

July 4—In preparation for secret invasion of S. France, U.S. 7th Army begins movement to port of Naples.  U.S. 1st Arm Div gains ground over Casole d’Elsa with 442nd.  Professor of physics Julius Robert Oppenheimer, head of the secret Manhattan Project, reveals Segrè's final measurements to the Los Alamos staff, and the development of the gun-type plutonium weapon is abandoned.  Designing a workable implosion design (Fat Man) becomes the top priority of the laboratory, and design of the uranium gun-type weapon (Little Boy) continues.  Submarine Seahorse torpedoes and sinks army cargo ship Gy_y_ Maru, cargo ship No.28 Ky_d_ Maru, and merchant cargo ship Nitt_ Maru about 140 miles south of Hong Kong.  Submarine Guavina sinks Japanese transport Tama Maru 60 miles northwest of Palau.  Submarine Tang sinks Japanese merchant cargo ships Asukasan Maru and Yamaoka Maru off the west coast of Korea.  Destroyers David W. Taylor and Riddle sink Japanese submarine I-10, attempting an evacuation mission to Saipan.  Indian Navy trawler Hoxa rescues 23 survivors (from a crew of 100) of Jean Nicolet and taken to Addu Atoll.   Garapan is liberated: 2nd Mar. Div completes take over of Garapan, the largest town in Saipanmerci ChatRodger Cadua and Keeping Up With The Joneses.

July 5—The millionth Allied soldier disembarks on French soil.  U.S. 8th A.F. hits targets in France, Holland, and Belgium 0 losses out of some 300 but 9 fighters brought down.

July 7—One of the wildest, largest Banzai charge ever recorded on earth took place on Saipan Is. complete with flashing Samurai swords; over 2,300 Japanese met their death. 1,129 bombers and over 700 escorts of the U.S. 8th A.F. dispatched to attack targets in Leipzig, the mission is costly, 280 Americans missing in action. U.S. forces cross the River Vire, seven miles n.w. from St. Lô.  Over 600,000 tons of supplies have been landed with 171,000 vehicles since D-Day; German opposition still formidable.

July 8—Hitler issues secret directive that Allies will try to invade the Pas-de-Calais area. Three U.S. divisions after bitter fighting reach La Haye-du-Puits, Normandy, with 5,000 casualties.  Swordfish aircraft from the British Merchant Aircraft Carrier MV Empire MacCallum mistakenly sink the Free French submarine La Perle.  Submarine chaser SC-1299 rescues 18 survivors from U.S. tanker Esso Harrisburg, sunk by German submarine U-516 on July 6 in the Caribbean. Dutch escort vessel Queen Wilhelmina rescues another 31 Esso Harrisburg survivors that same day.  LST-312 and LST-384 are damaged by V-1 rocket-bombs while moored at Naval Advance Amphibious Base, Deptford, England.  U.S. sub Tautog sinks Japanese army cargo ship Matsu Maru off Honshu.

July 9—Saipan is declared secure by the Allies but news that it fell was not released in Japan til July 18.   B-25s of U.S. 5th A.F. sink Japanese cargo vessel Oyashima Maru near Halmahera Island. Submarine Sunfish attacks Japanese convoy in the Kurils, sinks army cargo ship Taihei Maru north of Araito Island.

July 11—The Roosevelt administration officially recognized the French Committee of National Liberation under the leadership of General Charles De Gaulle as the de facto government of France in all of the liberated areas of that country. Gen. Ike warned the Germans that French underground forces should be recognized as combatants under the protection of international law.  Japanese merchant cargo ship Senyo Maru is sunk by U.S. aircraft, in Yangtze River, China.  U.S. Sealion, in the Yellow Sea off the west coast of Korea, near Shosei Jima, sinks Japanese merchant cargo ships No.2 Taiun Maru and No.2 Tsukushi Maru.  U.S. and Allied forces still stymied in Normandy, France.  From the NET Television production of "All Hell Can't Stop Us," thank you NetNebraska.

July 13—German resistance around Brody, Ukraine falls; 17,000 Germans are captured, 25,000 killed. American B-25s attack Japanese cargo ships off Halmahera, sinking T_kai Maru and damaging Taimei Maru.   U.S. sub Cobia sinks cargo ship Taishi Maru some 190 miles n.w. of Chichi Jima, Bonins; among cargo lost on board Taishi Maru are 28 tanks. Vilna taken by Soviets.

July 14—Operation CADILLAC: B-17’s drop 3,700 containers of arms and supplies over 7 drop zones to aid FFI in central and southern France.  In Paris and suburbs, lots of marches and protests, not seen since1940; several RR workers arrested.  Destroyer William C. Miller sinks Japanese submarine RO-48, near Saipan Is.

July 15—Six hundred and seven bombers of the U.S. 15th A.F. plaster Ploesti, with 1,526 tons.  Home in Indiana premieres in Technicolor in Los Angeles.

July 16—984 bombers and over 600 escorts of the U.S. 8th A.F. hit Munich, Stuggart, Augsburg, and Saarbrucken; 113 Americans missing in action.  U.S. sub Bonefish sinks Borneo-bound Japanese cargo vessel No.3 Tatsu Maru in Sulu Sea 10 nautical miles south of Palawan.  U.S. submarine Skate sinks Japanese transport Nipp_ Maru, e. of South Sakhalin, Kurils; survivors are rescued by Russian ship Dalstroi.  RAAF Beaufighters damage Japanese gunboat Man-Yo Maru, cargo vessel Tensho Maru, and motor sailboat No.14 Sakura Maru off Maumere.

July 17—U.S. 15th A.F. bombs rail targets in France.  Ammunition-carrying U.S. freighter E.A. Bryan explodes at the Port Chicago, California, ammunition depot; the adjacent freighter Quinalt Victory is also destroyed. Armed Guards on board both vessels are wiped out. Among the casualties are 250 African-American sailors. When survivors refuse to return to work in the wake of the blast, they are convicted of mutiny.  U.S. sub Cabrilla continues attack on Japanese convoy off west coast of Mindanao, sinking army transport Maya Maru and damaging transport Natsukawa Maru.  U.S. sub Gabilan sinks Japanese minesweeper W.25  northwest of Zenizu, Japan.  Gen. Rommel injured by Allied aircraft. Senior statesmen in Japan demand Tojo’s resignation.

July 18—U.S. troops of the 29th capture Saint Lô, but town for a week is subjected to heavy artillery fire.  Hideki Tojo falls from power and replaced by General Kuniaki Koiso as Premier and Admiral Mitsumasa Yonai as Vice Premier.  Over 2000 heavy Allied bombers bomb Caen to support Montgomery's planned breakout; largest bombardment in support of ground troops to this date.  German troops round up 2,000 Jews at Rhodes and Kos, Greece, for Auschwitz.  British troops liberate southern part of Caen, and within 24 hours all of Caen. The Western Front.  Sub Plaice sinks Ch 50, 200 nautical miles northwest of Chichi Jima.  Sub Ray sinks Japanese merchant tanker Jambi Maru (ex-Dutch Djambi) in the Java Sea north of Bawean Is.  Sub Lapon sinks Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Kurama Maru off southern end of Palawan; and survey ship No.36 Kyodo Maru and auxiliary submarine chaser Kamo Maru  northwest of Labuan, Borneo.  Fleet tug Apache retrieves disabled LCI(G)-348 from waters off Guam.  B-24s sink Japanese transport No.3 Kaio Maru northwest of Morotai, Indonesia.

July 19—1,082 bombers and over 670 escorts of U.S. 8th A.F. plus some 400 bombers of the U.S. 15th hit factories, a dam, 6 RR yards, 5 airfields; over 190 Americans missing in action.  RAAF Mitchells sink Japanese auxiliary minesweeper Wa.4 off Dili, Timor; small cargo vessel No.53 Ebisu Maru near Alor Island; and motor sailboat Bokkai Maru s.w. of Alor.  U.S. sub Flasher sinks Japanese light cruiser Oi in South China Sea.  Destroyer escort Wyman sinks Japanese submarine I-5, 360 miles east of Guam. Variety reports the most popular songs are: (1) “I’ll be Seeing You” (2) “Long Ago and Far Away” (3) “Amor.”

July 20—Members of the German military attempted to assassinate Chancellor Adolf Hitler in his East Prussian headquarters.  Hitler escaped the bombing attempt with only slight injuries and for weeks thereafter a major purge to root out the German resistance is mounted; the world really does not get the news until July 21.  U.S. 15th A.F. destroys 950 jet aircraft in Friedrichshafen.

July 21—U.S. 3rd Marine Division and First Brigade invade the island of Guam; at night a fierce Banzai charge counterattacks American forces and it is repelled.

July 22—Ploesti bombed by U.S. 15th A.F. after a dormant month, of 495 aircraft 24 are lost. 76 Lightnings and 58 Mustangs of 15th A.F. succeed in shuttle mission to bases in USSR, destroying 56 enemy aircraft in Rumania.

July 23—A 7-hour strike held at the Villeneuve-St Georges station called for the release of the imprisoned RR workers. A delegation went to discuss the issue with management in Paris and all are arrested by the Gestapo.  British submarine HMS Storm sinks Japanese cargo ship Kiso Maru and fishing vessel Taih_ Maru near Port Owen.   U.S. freighter William Gaston is sunk by U-861 en route from Buenos Aires to Baltimore.

July 24—U.S. Marines from the 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions invade Tinian Island; the U.S. lost 394 killed and 1,961 wounded; the Japanese lost over eight thousand when it was finally secured a week later.  Some 9,000 Japanese civilians chose to surrender. Remember that in regards the Pacific, due to the international dateline, the actual Pacific event was a date earlier. ie when, for example, Tinian was invaded, on July 24, European time was still July 23.  Russians liberate city of Lublin, eastern Poland, and some 3 miles away discover Majdanek extermination camp virtually intact but with fewer than 500 prisoners left; a polish resistance group had risen to stop the SS from destroying evidence of camp’s existence.  Soviet officials later invited journalists to inspect the camp and see evidence of the crematorium and the horrors.

July 25—A novel American offensive (Operation “Cobra”) with 1508 heavy bombers carpet-bomb area s. of St. Lô followed by some 500 P-47s and P-51s followed by some 300 medium bombers causes German front to collapse; initially the winds shifted and caused U.S. casualties; Cobra takes troops out from the confining sector of Normandy.  As of date, 12 U.S. 9th A.F. groups are on French soil.  Reminiscent of Saipan, fierce Banzai charge against Marines on Guam, in the night—an estimated 3,500 Japanese were killed.  Remember that in regards the Pacific, due to the international dateline, the actual Pacific event was a date earlier. ie while, for example, Operation Cobra took place on July 25, the Banzai charge had occurred a day earlier European time.  U.S. 15th A.F. fighter bombers from Soviet bases attack Mielec air base in Poland with great effect. 

July 26—U.S. First Army cuts vital Lessay-Periers road, gains bridgehead and begins to pour through; advances out of Normandy. Never seen anything like that, an RAF crew in a Mosquito which was very fast, see a German aircraft fly faster than theirs w/o any propellers. U.S. 15th A.F. fighters leave USSR destroying 20 enemy aircraft over Bucharest. Nisei Americans of U.S. 5th Army make contact with German units between Suvereto and Campiglia.

July 27—A fierce typhoon whips the Mariana islands.

July 28—U.S. 8th A.F. conducts a highly successful pinpoint attack on oil target at Merseburg-Leuna.  First objective in “Cobra” attained as Coutances, France liberated; and Germans withdraw en masse. 

July 30—Avranches, France, overlooking a bay, is liberated by U.S. 1st Army.  U.S. troops take Sansapor Island.  St. Lô below in color.

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Jul 31 —Approximately 10,000 lend-lease (U.S. built) aircraft have been sent to USSR since October of 1941.  Approximately 100,000 Germans killed or wounded in France since D-Day.  U.S. 4th Arm Div secures Selune and vital bridge in Pontaubault.  

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Death, destruction, waste, the world was in turmoil 75+ years ago.  From the smallest of farms to the giant capitals of Europe, from prisons and gas chambers and burning crematoriumsSummer of ’44 saw gas chambers working at 100% maximum—people yearned for freedom.  A Nazi Germany that had exploited the riches of Europe was due for a large change, and that started in France.  Summer saw the liberation of Europe begin in an incredible way when the ax fell on Hitler's best officersall down the lineit began slowly with the breakout of Normandy at the end of July.  Three Allied armies had been stuck since June in a little northwest corner of France.  Four major roads and 4 secondary roads sprocketed from St. Lô.   Actual video look at St. Lô and in color early summer; silent film, merci chronohistory.  It was declared liberated on July 18 and two weeks later, Gen. Patton's Third Army began a charge though France that liberated more towns and cities than all the other armies combined.  By Aug 26, getting ahead of ourselves, the U.S. Third Army liberated over 77,000 square kilometersPatton, collected maps the way some people collect coins or art treasures but three other factors played a key role: air support, the French Resistance, and the Allies had ridded Germany of its top field commanders during summer that literally spelled a new beginning, which gave people an escape from the nasty, darkest dungeons of the heart.  [By late summer, Field Marshal Rommel and General F. Dollman were not around anymore.  Gen. E. Marcks was killed in the beginning of D-Day. Field Marshal von Rundstedt, the hero of 1940, had quit although later he was installed. Mid-June Gen. Speidel, Rommel's Chief of Staff, had been killed.  Gen. Blumentrilt also lay six feet under.  SS Gen. Paul Hausser, the replacement to Gen. Dollman was wounded shortly after Falaise; Hausser used to be the commander of the VII Army.  When the Germans were retreating out from Falaise, Field Marshal Kluge, the theater commander, committed suicide.  Around Amiens on Aug. 31, a general by the name of Hans Eberbach was captured by a British platoon. Gen. Ramcke was taken in mid-September.  A litany of colonels were also captured or put out of service. All these things took a toll on the Wehrmacht (German Army) and its entire nerve system.  But, the spark, in this author's estimation, were Patton's Third Army's exploits and the results achieved were nothing short of fabulous.]  Keep in mind, France is the largest country in Western Europe with one of the most, if not the most, diversified landscape.  This is avidly described in the commemorative volume of 1944.

Aug 1 —American divisions in France split into 2 armies, the First and the Third.  Patton’s Third Army becomes operational and leads the Allied breakout into central France, first entering Brittany to secure vital ports and harbors beginning about 2  days later.  2nd French Armored Division enters France via Utah Beach, assigned to Patton’s XV Corps, Third Army, under Gen. Wade H. Haislip, who had been a student at the Ecole de Guerre, the war college in Paris, and knew French.  Patriotic forces hoping to free Warsaw, the capital, start an uprising as Soviet troops begin approaching the city; yearly Aug.1 is Memorial Day in Poland; dual 75th Anniversaries and 75th part 2 of the WARSAW UPRISING (thank you Chido-Fajny, Luke, and Polska Fundacja Narodowad).  Wilson premier in Technicolor at the Roxy in N.Y.C.  Costing $1m more than the 1939 Gone With the Wind, it was the most expensive film ever made at that time ($5.2m); the ads included 32,000 billboards coast to coast, 3,280 radio announcements; but in July had its “premiere” in Wahoo, Nebraska, Producer Darryl Zanuck’s home town, but was a flop in Wahoo and so it is rarely mentioned as “a premier”; also a box office flop elsewhere, but not at the Roxy: it grossed more than any one movie had in a single theatre up to then; movie's tone an internationalist theme. The fighting on Guam is difficult but island of Tinian declared secured. 

Aug 2 —RAF begins night-supply help to Warsaw.  Soviet A.F. daylight support over Warsaw mysteriously disappears.  Radio Berlin admits Rommel is hurt.   Luftwaffe pilot Lieut. Erich Sommer flew an Arado 234 secret jet powered med. bomber over Allied Normandy beachheads, taking a high-def photo every 11 seconds; first jet aircraft recon mission in aviation history.  U.S. destroyer escort Fiske torpedoed by U-804 in South Atlantic.  A unit of the 1st Polish Army attached to the Soviet Red Army establishes a bridgehead over the Vistula River, s. of Warsaw.  U.S. sub Tautog sinks cargo ship Konei Maru off Honshu, Japan.  Gypsy Wildcat released in Los Angeles in Technicolor. 

Aug 3 —French resistance fighters the “Battalion of Heaven” 150 strong drop by parachute from England, secure several high RR bridges near Brest and with local maquisards hold and saved them for Patton’s advancing units.

Aug 3-4 —U.S. 3rd Army spearhead liberates Rennes, 150 miles from Argentan.  Intensive V-1 attack on southern England lasts a record 14 hours; ten hospitals are struck while German 7th Army retreats out of Normandy.   Pres. Roosevelt visits Adak, Aleutians on board cruiser Baltimore.  British 2nd Army fight entrenched stiff resistance along Vire and Estry.  British 8th Army reaches Florence, Italy.  Capture of Myitkyina finalized; at a cost of 972 Chinese and 272 Americans killed; 3,184 Chinese and 955 Americans wounded; 188 Chinese and 980 Americans sick.  Myitkyina is a vital rail link.   U.S. 7th Inf Div and U.S. 3rd Mar Div continue fighting for northern Guam, mainly jungle.  In two days, U.S. naval pilots sink a cruiser, 5 destroyers, 5 cargo vessels and 12 other vessels near the Volcano and Bonin islands. 

Aug 4 —Electrostatic Plant for manufacturing hydrogen peroxide in Peenemunde bombarded by 221 Flying Fortresses part of 1,461 bombers U.S. 8th A.F. dispatched all over Germany (8 flew secret mission, 1st time: war-weary radio-controlled [drones, Operation Aphrodite] B-17s flying bombs; escorted by over 800 fighters.  One P-51 pilot landed in neutral Sweden, surrounded by Swedish beauties.  Heinkel Flugzugwerke, Rostok, hit by 146 bombers of 8th A.F.   More Lightnings (P-38s) land on Russia.   Warsaw airlift to aid Polish resistance begins from far-away bases in Celone and Brindisi, Italy but were denied clearance to fly over Soviet air space, or land on nearby Allied Soviet airbases. Warsaw airlift was conducted by Polish, British, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand and South African airmen sporadically until Sept. 28.  Stalin refused Western Allies the use of his airfields near Warsaw for several weeks but he gave clearance and allowed other airfields to be used by U.S.-Allied forces.  Bridgehead is established over the Vistula R. near Baranov by Soviet forces. Warsaw Polish resistance includes many women, the minerki saw real hand-to-hand combat. RAF pilot T.D. Dean makes successful combat debut against V-1, as he tips the rocket into the sea with wing.  British 50th Div liberates Villers-Bocage.  U.S. 83rd Inf Div pounds St. Malo.  American task force locates Japanese convoy and sink destroyer Matsu, collier Ryuko Maru, carrier planes sink transports No.7 Unkai Maru, Enju Maru, Tonegawa Maru and Shogen Maru; ship gunfire and carrier planes combine to sink cargo ship Hokkai Maru.  Army and Marines link up on Guam.  U.S. sub Ray sinks cargo ship Koshu Maru in Celebes Sea.  South African armor is first to enter Florence, Italy, over the Ponte Vecchio bridge at 4 am and liberates city; UNESCO declared the historic center of Florence as a World Heritage Site. Anne Frank and her family arrested in Amsterdam by Gestapo.  

Aug 5 —Brittany peninsula is cut off as U.S. 4th Arm Div reaches Vannes, 4th Arm frequently travelled the secondary roads, because the Germans tended to concentrate their obstacles and ambushes along the main highways;  led by Gen. John S. Wood, "the Rommel of the American armored forces."  U.S. sub Cero sinks oiler Tsurumi in Davao Gulf. 

Aug 6 —Patton’s troops reach Saint Brieuc and Brest, over 160 astounding miles from Avranches.  Patton’s troops liberate Laval.  Gen. Montgomery orders drive to the Seine.  Strong counterattacks hit British 2nd Army between Vire and Mont Pincon.  Three PT boats race to intercept a flotilla of German patrol boats forcing them back to Le Havre.   Berlin and varying oil refineries in Hamburg and Harburg bombed by 999 bombers; 24 hit Pas de Calais; 75 bombed aircraft plant Gdynia, Poland and landed in the USSR, all protected by 713 fighter escorts, 1 P-51 pilot crashed over Cambridge, 9 MIA--all from the U.S. 8th A.F.  Ace Maj. George Preddy shoots down 6 enemy aircraft on this day; also from 8th A.F.  Rail and land transport into Paris disrupted; bread supplies some 60% of pre-war levels, milk supplies down to 12%, meat consumption down to 20%, vegetable supplies down to 10%.  Paris edict: gas available only from 12:15 to 12:30 pm and 7:20-8:30 pm for cooking. Gasoline for driving?  Nonexistent, that is why you see WW II people in Paris on bikes. The Paris Metro is ordered shut down from 11 am to 3 pm.  Rail targets all along Bucharest hit by U.S. 15th A.F. fighters.  U.S. sub Pintado sinks cargo ship Sh_nan Maru.  U.S. sub Rasher sinks merchant Shiroganesan Maru west of Luzon.  U.S. 1st Army liberates Vire.  Harvard University discloses that Comdr. Howard Aiken in collaboration with IBM has developed an automatic calculator computer, “Super Brain”.

Aug 7 —Patton’s Third Army fiercely encircles Brest; but garrison of 36,000 Germans hold out. With a spearhead of 4 panzer divisions, Germans launch counterattack against U.S. 1st Army at Mortain in an attempt to halt the Allied breakout, advancing to Juvigny.   Four German divisions are isolated on Brittany.  Mont Pincon falls to British.  Canadian 1st Army begins to move on Falaise after heavy air bombardment. 83rd Inf Div liberates Dinard.  U.S. sub Barbel sinks cargo vessel Sakura Maru off Tokuno Jima.  U.S. sub Bluegill sinks transport Yamatama Maru s.w. of Mindanao.  U.S. sub Croaker sinks cruiser Nagara 35 miles s. of Nagasaki.  Oil refineries at Trzebina, Poland hit by U.S. 8th A.F.   President Roosevelt arrives at Kodiak, Alaska. The artificial harbors and shelter anchorages off the Normandy coast were kept secret for many weeks. Jesus Christ what artists can do now!  A gorgeous scene as how the Mulberry Harbor sector would look in 3dSilent film, about 6mins but may we suggest, first click here on this wonderful recording session for Paris brule-t-il? 4mins sung by Melinda Million and play it as you also view the silent educational film—in other words, open a 2nd window, copy paste the 2nd video, then in the 1st window play the Mulberry Harbor, as it is silently running, click and run the 2nd windowKeep both windows open on you computer (merci tadlowmusic). Actually you can even use 2 cellphones or a combination, be creative. With one window showing the cool 3d Mulberry, you get a French song playing in the background. You are now in France 1944, in the village of Arromanches. C'est tres bonne. Merci PEmagazine.  Vive La Libération.

Aug 8 —Le Mans, major city of 75,000, in some of the loveliest garden-like lands of France, is liberated by Patton’s 3rd Army as they hit stride eastward towards Paris.  Over 1000 U.S. 8th A.F. bombers w/531 escorts target airfields/ target RR and Noball sites in France. 41 P-51s U.S. 8th A.F. escort an RAF flight with targets in Norway, 3 Mustangs lost. 

Aug 9 —Eisenhower establishes headquarters in France.  U.S. 15th A.F. bombs Hungary oil refineries.  U.S. 5th Inf Div reaches outskirts of Angers.  Canadian 1st Army is bogged down 8 miles n. of Falaise. A secret mission to rescue downed bomber pilots over Serbia is begun by OSS and Serbian chetnik freedom fighters.  U.S. sub Barbel sinks cargo ship Yagi Maru and merchant Boko Maru near Okinoshima. Debut of ”Smokey the Bear”.  British sub Trenchant sinks fishing boat No 2 Hiyoshi Maru off Sumatra.

Aug 10—Ploesti is bombed by 414 U.S. bombers.  Fuel dumps and bridges bombed by 162 B-24s U.S. 8th A.F. with 397 P-38s, P-47s, P-51s support/hit RR targets over France, while another 130 P-47s, P-51s went hunting as fighter-bombers, little friends destroyed at least 37 locomotives, but paid a high price: 15 pilots did not come back. The U.S. 5th and Fr. 2nd Armored Divisions meet stiff resistance n.e. of Le Mans, loose some 40 tanks between them.  Patriots in Warsaw able to control three-fifths of the city, plea for outside help indicating they face extinction unless assisted (2.56 min video thanks to crimsonsky). Standard Oil plant near Paris is bombed by 8th A.F.  Polish troops in Italy advance to the Cesano River.  Organized enemy resistance ceases on the Marianas.  Railwaymen and Metro staff of Paris go on strike.  Superfortresses fly from secret base in Ceylon 4,030 miles to mine and bomb Palembang oil site in the Sumatran mtns; the longest nonstop mission of the war.  Guam is declared free and secured, at a cost of almost 11,000 U.S. casualties. Overall, 1,744 U.S. troops killed on the Mariana Islands; over 10,000 Japanese killed. Several thousand native Chamorros are free.  Race riots in Athens, Alabama. U.S. sub Bowfin sinks cargo ship Seiko Maru.  U.S. sub Guitarro sinks tanker Shinei Maru off Luzon.  Iwo Jima is bombed by U.S. 7th A.F. for the first time. 

Aug 11Angers, a city of 95,000 near the Loire River but on the Maine River, liberated by U.S. 3rd Army, handling almost 2,000 prisoners.  Patton’s spearhead liberates Nantes situated on the Loire, 158 miles from St..  Allies advance to the Indo-Burmese frontier and force Japanese to retreat into Burma. Florence liberated by British and partigiani.

Aug 12A full Battle Group (German 1st and 7th Armies) beats a crazy retreat from Normandy. U.S. HQ of Patton utilized both the simple and the complex during his summer drive.  The speed of his advance forced Patton to use close air support, a concept begun in late July by Gen. Elwood P. Quesada whereby an air traffic controller rode in one of the spearhead tanks who would be in close contact with 3 or 4 Thunderbolts or Mustangs.   Moreover, they all had help big time from British military intelligence in particular cipher traffic that decrypt the highly technical Lorenz SZ 40/42 machines of German High Command.  The Germans thought they were super smart when they had completed a highly advanced version in June, the SZ42B, but the British had a trick up their sleeve, the thermionic valves Colossus computer (not to be confused with Colossus: The Forbin Project) running at Bletchley Park. [On June 1, the improved Colossus Mark 2, that used shift registers to quintuple the processing speed went online just in time; a copy of it is on display at The National Museum of Computing at Bletchley Park as all originals were destroyed; note, it was not designed to decode Enigma. All this was ultra secret, and hence the term Ultra code breaking is found in both the film and written media. Ultra utilizes a machine that looks like an old-fashioned typewriter but with highly complex rotors and wires etc.  Within this domain was Colossus which cut the time to "translate” the latest of the German Lorenz. I suspect both machinations were used to give Patton’s G-2 HQ info on enemy strength and disposition.]  U.S. Third Army had more G-2 officers than any other army. All this added to his lightning operation that is rarely told.  When the famous Patton movie was released, however, in 1970 with George C. Scott, the existence of the Colossus machines was unknown as it was kept secret until the mid-1970s. The German thrust at Mortain is spent and over, U.S. 1st Army, held.  Other U.S. 1st Army units plus British 2nd Army, Canadian 1st Army and U.S. 3rd Army help squeeze the Nazis in a gap around Chamois-Argentan-Lisieux, France, known as the Battle of Argentan-Falaise.   Pluto oil line semi-completed from Britain to France.  U.S. 5th Arm Div and Fr. 2nd Arm Div race toward town of Argentan, which that morning only had some German bakers; U.S. on the eastern side, Fr. on the western side and things become confused.  598 bombers, 109 fighters U.S. 8th A.F. target E. and central France. The last Nazis are driven from Florence, Italy.  U.S. sub Puffer sinks oil tanker Teikon Maru off Cape Calavite.  U.S. sub Tambor sinks Toei Maru in Sea of Okhotsk.  U.S. sub Flier hits mine south of Palawan and goes to the bottom of the sea.  Churchill asks Stalin to send aid to help Polish war-fighters in Warsaw; and is refused. Royal Canadian AF pilots flying new Spitfire Mark XIVs begin anti-V-1 flying operations. Pres. Roosevelt concludes naval inspections in Pacific and departs Puget Sound.

Aug 13—100 miles away from Paris, U.S. 5th Arm Div and Fr 2nd Arm Div blocked at Argentan by 3 newly-arrived panzer divisions.   Policemen and subways of Paris go on strike. Hardly ever told, pretty unknown, a flight of B-24 Liberators of the South African A.F. set off to Brindisi, Italy and then towards the enemy infested city of Warsaw zig-zagging through 7 countries to drop some supplies. 1269 U.S. 8th A.F bombers and 1065 fighters dispatched to France, encompassed Le Havre-Paris-St.Malo area; 25 planes lost; some 100 Americans failed to return.  Lt. Joe Kennedy, brother of John F. Kennedy, in U.S. Navy Liberator exploded near seaside villages Walberswick and Blythburgh, England; no survivors.  Luftwaffe launches 19 V-1s not from the ground, but from a bomber airplane; a new tactic to strike at England with V-1s.  A further 17 V-1s are fired at England; for a brief chronology of the V-1.   

Aug 14—Japanese propaganda radio broadcast, The Zero Hour, with Tokyo Rose, was clearly heard in San Francisco, California.  LST-921 sunk by U-boat 11 miles s.w. of Hartland Point, England.  U.S. sub Bluefish sinks tanker Shinpo Maru.  U.S. sub Ray sinks merchantman Zuisho Maru near Borneo. 800 RAF bombers sent to bomb over Falaise to relieve pressure at Falaise; 150 Polish troops killed due to error by navigators.

Aug 15—Fantastic, thunderous news: Supported by 1,300 Allied land-based bombers and fighters striking so. France, a gigantic Allied invasion of French Riviera: involving 900 ships of four Allied navies, including 6 aircraft carriers, 300,000 U.S., French and British invade between St. Tropez and Nice, France (colorized 7.22min video; thanks Ralph Laurino).  At nightfall, a JU-88 bomber attacks USS LST-282 with a glide bomb off Cap Dramont, is beached and abandoned.  Ste. Maxime and St. Tropez, on the Fr. Rivera coast, are liberated by U.S. 7th Army 10.41min video (merci Justine and hdarchives).  Over 2,000 German POWs by nightfall.   Luftwaffe pilot Helmut Lennartz first time shoots down a B-17 in his Messerschmitt 262 jet.  Patton has U.S. 4th Arm Div sweep the n. bank of the Loire between Tours and Blois, as a protection of southern flank—a whole German 19th Army was still free in the south—captures the airport of Orleans and are at the outskirts of the city.  At Chartres, U.S. 7th Arm Div begins initial attacks on city—magnet city full of retreating Germans—at night the U.S. withdraw.  Texan Audie Murphy, the most decorated U.S. soldier of the war, single-handedly captures a hill in s. France.  Below are Dorothy Du Boisson (left) and Elsie Booker with the Colossus Mark 2. 

Dorothy Du Boisson (left) and Elsie Book

Aug 16Dreux and the city of Joan of Arc, Orleans, are liberated by U.S. 3rd Army (merci AFCVM, Bestnomads and M. Fouquet).  Canadian 1st Army enters wrecked town of Falaise.   St. Malo is secured.  Blois is liberated by another of Patton’s Third Army columns.  U.S. 7th Arm Div and 5th Inf Div attack Chartres en force. The American who saved it’s beautiful cathedral on this day: Col. Welborn B. Griffith of Texas infiltrated the German-still-held city, went inside the Cathedral and found no Germans inside including it's tower, reported back to save the monument from being shelled. General Bradley instructs Patton to go no further. 35 young Resistance fighters in Paris attending a secret meeting were captured by the Gestapo after being betrayed; executed.  The Messerschmitt Me.163 “Komet” rocket-powered interceptor is used against Allied bombers for the first time.  1,069 B-17’s hit oil and aircraft targets in central Germany.  There are still 5 fighting armies of Germany in France: V Panzers, I, VII and XV Armies. The XIX is below the Loire R, far south.  Soviet spearhead forces advance to seven miles n.e. of Warsaw, and halt.  Over England, at least 41 V-1 rockets brought down by A-A British batteries; the scale of V-1 attacks very high.  Washington D.C. orders Eisenhower to undertake supply-mission for Warsaw relief.  Le Muy, So. France, captured by U.S. paratroop forces.  PT boats 202 and 218 hit mines and sink in Gulf of Frejus.  U.S. imposes a freeze on Argentina’s gold assets.  Post men of Paris go on strike.  The Junkers Ju.287-V1 secret prototype jet bomber, which features Germany’s forward-swept wings, is flown for the first time.  On an educational related subject, something that almost happened, The Leonidas Squadron (Germany's Kamikazes). Thanks History of the Third Reich, Kryb and Mark Felton Productions.  LST-391 is damaged by mine off Cherbourg.

Aug 17Over 86,500 Allies have been landed over French Mediterranean beaches since D-Day.  Châteaudun is liberated by U.S. 3rd Army.  Bradley releases Patton however, a change of command: U.S. forces trying to seal the southern portion of the Battle of Argentan-Falaise is changed from Third Army to First Army HQ.   All air support over Argentan-Falaise also becomes off-limits to Allied pilots, ie. stopped. 

Aug 18—Patton’s Third Army battles for encircled Chartres, artillery that fired on the city, cautioned to be careful of the historic town and its cathedral.    Cathedral city of Chartres by close of day is liberated; over 2,000 prisoners, a large Luftwaffe installation, depots, and 50 planes captured; Paris is only 50 miles away.  Massive, beautiful cathedral left untouched, much appreciation to Rick Steves (2.46 mins).    U.S. 8th A.F. sends 745 bombers and 611 P-38s, P-47s, P-51s over France; 2 bombers lost, 17 fighters lost, about 40 Americans did not return; 16 P-51s flew secret mission to Peenemunde; weather begins to deteriorate over W. Europe. Another of Patton’s spearhead divisions reach Seine River at Mantes-la-Jolie, a town about 30 miles n.w of Paris. Mantes-Gassicourt reached, but troops do not enter. German troops evacuate Rambouillet at night.  Limited fighting breaks out in the suburbs of Paris, in Les Lilas the skies lit up at night with flames.  U.S. Sub Ray sinks merchant tanker Nansei Maru off southern tip of Palawan.  U.S. Subs Rasher and Redfish attack convoy off w. coast of Luzon, sink escort carrier Taiyo, transport Teia Maru, cargo ship Eishin Maru, oiler Teiyo Maru, and merchant tanker Eiyo Maru.  Dutch submarine Zwaardvisch sinks Japanese vessel Kim Hup Soen in Strait of Malacca.  Three hundred and 77 U.S. bombers hit Ploesti; 7 planes lost.  

Aug 19—Twenty-one C-47s land with 47 tons of rations near Le Mans, becomes the first delivery of what was a daily emergency airlift to entire Third Army.  Police invade the Prefecture de Police, the first official building to be liberated in Paris.  Parisians set up barricades but many had no ammo. For the most part, Germans control the streets.  Paris eerily deserted in many places, whistling bullets fly by, guns echo as German vehicles scurry about the chaos.  The SS storm a police station near Gare de Lyon, and capture over a dozen policemen. Third Army’s 79th Div enters Mantes-Gassicourt, meeting no resistance by the Germans.  79 years ago the Allied world felt a happy time, today’s citizens can freely be HAPPY MANTES LA JOLIE (like 4mins merci LFM Radio 95.5FM.  Each scene, including Mantes-Gassicourt, represents modern-day people, interspersed within our timeline we have this in mind, to show the beauty of liberty and vibrance against a world that was trapped, and fought for, to be free, with each scene chosen to represent people and myriad cultures and geographies.)  79th crosses the Seine in a rain downpour at night—actually the 1st troops used a nearby narrow foot path across a dam in single file; the vital river is denied the German. The military commander of Paris, General Dietrich von Choltitz, and Raoul Nordling, the Swedish counsel general in Paris, conclude a truce, to expire on Aug. 22, that held back a resistance uprising.  Both Gen. Eisenhower and De Gaulle feared civil unrest in Paris could result in German destruction.   U.S. Navy Hellcats and British Seafires sweep inland and destroy locomotives and rolling stock and first-time down Luftwaffe aircraft over southern France, near Toulouse.  Sixty-five U.S. bombers strike Ploesti; 0 losses.  Battleship Nevada, French battleship Lorraine, and heavy cruiser Augusta blast the harbor and batteries at St. Mandrier.  U.S. sub Bluefish sinks tanker/seaplane carrier Hayasui, and damages hospital ship Awa Maru off Cape Bolinao.  Polish airmen in RAF shoot down 12 V-1s.  Hitler and his general staff are preparing to organize the Somme-Marne River line for defensive positions near Paris.  Commander-in-Chief Model makes it imperative that the sector between the Eure and the Seine River is vital near Louviers where  “an enemy breakthrough attempt to Louviers can be expected." 

Aug 20—U.S. 8th and 15th A.F.’s strike I.G. Farben and Auswitz.  Majority of 79th Div across Seine at Mantes-Gassicourt, and ordered to head north to Louviers, about 28 miles away, and cut German escape route.  U.S. artillery unit composed of Afro Americans (silent).  Six Avengers from U.S. carrier Bogue sink U-1229, 300 nautical miles from Cape Race, Newfoundland, N. Atlantic; U-1229 was proceeding to Long Island, N.T., U.S.A., to drop off sneaky saboteurs.  B-24s of U.S. 14th Air Force sink Japanese tanker Chuko Maru near Hong Kong. Half the Gare de Lyon police captives machine-gunned by the SS.  At 11:30 pm Free French Radio erupts on the air, replacing Radio-Paris. Toulouse liberated by FFI. A new summer offensive by Soviet Army commences in the Jassy area of Rumania. 

Aug 20-21—Deep ravines, woods, fog and rain aid German forces to contain U.S. troops advancing to Louviers.  Area around Falaise and Argentan surrounded, about 60 miles from Louviers, escape pocket for 15 German divisions is closed by Canadian and Polish troops, trap nets over 50,000 prisoners; 30,000 manage to escape; over 50,000 dead Germans, 1,800 dead horses counted dead and the stench in summer was horrific.  Worst German disaster since Stalingrad. Our video also describes liberation of Florence, Rennes, and exploding V-1s (but, video caption is incorrect; not ’45).  Germans that escaped the Falaise trap desperately poured across Rouen and about 18 major ferry points between Rouen and Mantes, where Seine is only 500 ft in width, and ferry across.  Ordinary people had been killed by the Germans while the so-called cease fire was in effect. People of Paris rise to oust the Germans. H Hour for the FFI (5min11sec).  The Maquis strike. The German commander in Paris had orders from Hitler to blow all 60-odd bridges and destroy Paris.   B-29’s meet enemy opposition for first time over Yawatta; 13 losses.  U.S. 15th A.F. bombs oil refineries in Poland and Czechoslovakia in great depth, and becomes the least costliest day mission in 15th A.F. history; 4 losses out of 500.  Off Mindoro, U.S. subs Guitarro, Haddo, Harder and Ray carry out series of attacks on Japanese convoy: Guitarro sinks cargo ship Uga Maru; Haddo sinks merchants Kinryu Maru and Norfolk Maru and damages merchant tanker Taiei Maru; and Ray sinks Japanese oil tanker Taketoyo Maru.   Churchill and Roosevelt address a joint appeal to Stalin to help the people of Warsaw.    It is a Cruel Summer for the Axis but it is crueler for the Polish resistance fighters known as the Home Army (AK).  U.S. Third Army spearhead column is 62 miles s.e. of Paris and liberates Sens; 29 miles from Montargis.  Last Japanese resistance on islands off New Guinea, on Biak and Noemfoor, ends.  

Aug 22—Patton’s Third Army liberates la Chapelle.  U.S. subs Haddo and Harder encounter three Japanese escort vessels off the mouth of Manila Bay and sink Sado, Matsuwa and Hiburi.  U.S. sub Pintado sinks merchantship No.2 Tonan Maru 200 nautical miles southeast of Shanghai.  U.S. sub Tang sinks Japanese cargo ship No.2 Nansatsu Maru off Mikizaki.  U.S. sub Bowfin sinks cargo ship Tsushima Maru in the Nansei Shoto; not knowing 767 children on board. British sub HMS Statesman sinks Japanese cargo ship No.5 Sugi Maru off  Port Blair.  Canadian Army crosses Touques River.  Deauville liberated by 1st Belgian Inf Brigade. Luftwaffe flies bombers carrying new V-1s from a secret base on Venlo, Holland and strikes at England.   Imperial Japan initiates compulsory labor draft for women and girls from 12 to 40.  Polish troops clear all resistances of the Metauro River in Italy.  Military commander of war-time Paris receives an order from High Command in Berlin, on decoded orders from Hitler, Paris is not to fall into enemy hands other than as a heap of rubble, and to blow up whole city blocks.  Kismet premieres in Technicolor in N.Y. City.

Aug 23—Citizens of Paris seized arms and riot against the German occupation forces. The excitement mounts in Paris. The French Forces of the Interior launch full scale attacks against occupiers in the metropolis.  This is a silent video but is included for what it shows and its historical importance on advancement through France; about 10 mins.   I remember my father telling me, “We walked and we walked a lot across Europe.”  In two columns, a Franco-American force heads for Paris and at night are less than 20 miles from the capital. Troops of the U.S. 4th Inf Div get the go-ahead to capture the Seine bridges upstream of Paris. The 2 Allied axis of drive: the Leclerc division with 4th Div GIs reinforced by four battalions of tank destroyers and Shermans, and staff members of U.S. V Corps, and reporters went in by the north. From the south, through Rambouillet, Versailles was the bulk of the Fr. troops, U.S engineers and artillery, and more reporters.  French troops under Leclerc were given the honor of first entry but they ran into artillery traps on the outskirts of Rambouillet; 41 armored vehicles and 317 men die. Drancy Concentration Camp in Paris liberated.  Grenoble, at the foot of the Alps, is secured by U.S. 36th Inf Div.  Marseille, France's largest port, secured by Free French and Resistance forces.  Third Army spearhead liberates the city of Fontainebleau (5 mins video), 34 miles s.e. of Paris. U.S. sub Tang sinks cargo ship Tsukushi Maru off Hamamatsu.  U.S. freighter Louis Kossuth enroute to Utah Beach torpedoed by U-989 escapes sinking, towed to Cowes, England, by British tug Empire Winnie.  A U.S. B-24 crashes into village of Freckleton, England, destroys Holy Trinity Church, several homes and the Sad Sack Snack Bar; of the 60 people killed by accident, 38 are children, 7 U.S. servicemen, 4 British servicemen in village. German garrison on Isle de Proquerolles, except isolated stragglers, surrenders to Commander TG 86.3 in light cruiser Omaha; the island will then be occupied by Senegalese troops.  On Eastern Front, King Michael of Romania dismisses government of General Ion Antonescu and accepts the United Nations armistice terms.  The Romanian surrender trapped most of the German Black Sea fleet.  Soviets occupy Romania.  Soviet domination of the Black Sea opened up a strategic supply route which permitted more cargo to reach the Soviet Union.

Aug 24—Swiss journalist Edmond Dubois in Paris wrote, "The tremendous noise of shells [4 Panther tanks were battling the FFI on the rue de Grenelle] being fired echoes around the narrow street, where I am, while the blast fills the street and smacks your face.  It gives the impression of force and power, there is the overwhelming smell of gunpowder."  South of Paris before Versailles, Fr. tank progress is held up by German anti-tank defenses, especially in the forest of l’Homme Mort (the Dead Man).  While in northern Paris, convoys of German trucks evacuate Paris and are shot all over the place.  The train stations Gare du Nord and Gare de l’Est crammed with troops waiting for trains that never came.  By nightfall all of them wind up as POWs.  Before midnight, a small Fr. unit led by Capt. Raymond Dronne somehow penetrates through the suburbs—with delirious people swamping his 22 vehicles and girls perched on top of some of his tanks— into the center of Paris, cross the Seine R. by the Gare dAusterlitz, reaching the Hotel de Ville just before 11 pm, but much of the city is now quiet, except where men of the captain were; of his 160 troops, 146 had Spanish names or were Spanish exiles. The great bells of Notre Dame suddenly began to ring loudly.  Another Fr. column under Col. Massu with a group of Americans of the 102nd Cavalry led by Captain Peterson, inched their way from the s.w. near Sèvres, moments after Dronne reached the Hotel de Ville, and headed for the Seine, and set up an HQ near the Il Seguin.  Before the midnight hour, the electricity of the city suddenly came on and all the street lights bathed everyone in lights to their surprise. Musée de la Libération de Paris is a new museum in Paris that opened in 2019.   Spearhead of U.S. Third Army streams to Montargis, 83 miles from Mantes-Gassicourt.  U.S. 2nd Arm Div, First Army, reaches Elbeuf and hits firm lines of defense.  American troops enter Cannes.  Weimar Armament Works is attacked by 129 8th A.F. bombers.  2000 U.S. bombers strike oil plants in central, western Germany and Czechoslovakia; missions are highly successful. All students in Nazi Germany mobilized for war work.   British carrier force attacks Padang, Sumatra, sinking Japanese merchant cargo ship Shiretoko Maru near the harbor and damaging Senko Maru and Chisho Maru.  U.S. submarine Sailfish sinks transport Toan Maru in Luzon Strait.  One of the war’s most distinguished submarines, U.S. sub Harder is sunk by Japanese Coast Defense Vessel No. 22 off west coast of Luzon; the sub that had sighted Adm. Ozawa departing Tawi Tawi and had sunk 4 of his destroyers in four days, causing Ozawa to believe he was under attack by a fleet of U.S. subs.   U.S. sub Seal sinks Japanese merchantship Tosei Maru off s.e. coast of Hokkaido.  U.S. sub Ronquil attacks Japanese convoy, sinking army cargo ship No.3 Yoshida Maru off Keelung, Formosa (presently Taiwan), and merchant cargo ship Fukurei Maru.

Aug 25Paris liberated.

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One of the most famous war correspondents of WW II was Ernest Taylor Pyle, known as Ernie Pyle.  The Albuquerque Museum contains memorabilia, images and documents on Ernie Pyle.

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He wrote newspaper columns for the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain, with his initial WWII coverage going back to the Battle of Britain 1941 for Scripps, an American broadcasting company, which started in 1878 when Edward W. Scripps first published the Cleveland Penny Press; Scripps moved to Chicago 37 years later and his newspaper chain became a dominant player in both media news and United Feature Syndicate, which was founded exactly 100 years ago in 1919.  United Feature covered the comic book world, including such names as Dilbert, Garfield, Grin and Bear It, Li’l Abner, Ripley’s Believe It or Not, Tarzan, and Topper.  


Before WW II, Ernie Pyle criss-crossed the United States and wrote about it; his informal writing style was unique, furnishing material for a column that eventually led to as many as 200 newspapers before World War II.  Selected Albuquerque for his home.  Initial convoy was to Africa in 1942, landing in the bay of Oran.  He wrote not of battle statistics but about the daily lives of common soldiers in the trenches.  His dispatches brought to life how it was, and he really was read from coast to coast in America by everybody, from Maine and Florida to Seattle, California and Hawaii.  Everybody recognized his name.  On Ernie Pyle from the National WW II Museum.     

Ernie shyly avoided the public, yet received numerous honors and awards including an honorary Doctor of Letters from the Univ. of New Mexico and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in Journalism for his World War II columns of 1943. They were published as Here is Your War (1943) and Brave Men (1944), and in 1945 a movie was released based on him and the GIs titled GI JOE, starring Burgess Meredith as Pyle and Robert Mitchum as Capt. Waskow, although in the movie he is Lt. Walker. 

His writings also appeared in Stars and Stripes and Yank, the GI papers.  Pyle transcends time for his writings explored the vistas of war that made him memorable.  In 1944, he was right in the middle of the battles of Normandy and France.  About 4 months before WW II ended, a sniper cut his life in April of 1945.  Two of his most famous dispatches were on Capt. Waskow and the liberation of Paris, which was liberated on August 25, 1944. The liberation of Paris is vividly covered in our 1944 commemorative.  I am grateful for the educational links we add here.  His property was donated to the City of Albuquerque, and in 1948 the Pyle House opened to the public as a branch of the Albuquerque Public Library.  The address is 900 Girard Blvd  SE.  If you are there, it is worthwhile to pay a little visit if you visit Albuquerque.  For the record, this website utilizes an uncommon historical photography profile with up-to-date facts. Not one photograph that is herewith in color is colorized. Every photograph is authentic. The photographs utilized thermo-magneto technology. Song by Scott Miller on the Red Ball Express, released in Upside Downside, is insightful, thanks Scott. 

Aug 25-26—British motorized infantry troops begin to cross the Seine R.   U.S. 2nd Armor fights its way into Elbeuf, then turns it over to the Canadians. Port city of Toulon in French hands, except the military port of Toulon. Soviets reach Danube River.  German escape ferry operations still in operation across Seine, near Rouen and points south.  Night flight of RAF bombards Russelsheim. A new system to bring American trucks in convoys with petrol oil lubricants from St. Lô on express road to Chartres (depot from which the armies picked up their supplies) is instituted, known as the Red Ball Express, one of the most successful cogs on the road to victory. About 75% of the soldiers in the Red Ball Express were Afro American soldiers. [Between Aug. 19 and Sept. 16, about 13,000 tons were additionally supplied by air, via Skytrains and B-24s.] 

Aug 26—Gen. Charles de Gaulle leads a victory parade in newly-freed Paris, down the Champs-Élysées.  An estimated 1,000 French citizens and 3,200 Germans were killed during the Battle for Paris. A further 12,800 German troops became POWs.  Gen. Montgomery orders Canadian First Army to clear Pas-de-Calais, the British Second Army to drive into Belgium, and for the U.S. First in support of British drive. Forward element of U.S. 45th Inf Div drives on Lyon as it chases 19th German Army in retreat. Motor torpedo boats PT-511, PT-514 and PT-520 take part in a night engagement (that lasts into the following day) that turns back the last German attempt to reinforce the besieged garrison at Le Havre; the PT boats sink German artillery ferries AFP 98 and AFP 108.  Luftwaffe planes at night, from Holland and Germany, conduct air raid over Paris, painting the sky a bright red in the southeast; 200 people killed, nearly 900 injured.  Fr. troops mop up enemy in Paris.  U.S. Third Army thrusts to the Marne and overruns Chateau-Thierry.  An American aircrew of 8 from a B-24 shot down near Hanover on Aug. 24, before reaching a POW camp by train, (9 had been captured but one was taken to a hospital on the 24th), forced to march through the town of Russelsheim--RR tracks were down--and attacked by a German mob and are beaten to death; bodies left for dead, but 2 survivors testified at war crimes in 1946. The entire German 19th Army has been moving north since circa Aug. 20 crossing the Rhône and with both sides attacking and counterattacking about 4 miles n. of Montelimar.

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Aug 25-26—British motorized infantry troops begin to cross the Seine R.  Division strength Brazilian Expeditionary Force were the only Allies from South America who provided ground troops in the ETO; emblem above is a snake in 5th Army patch.  U.S. 2nd Armor fights its way into Elbeuf, then turns it over to the Canadians. Port city of Toulon in French hands, except the military port of Toulon. Soviets reach Danube River.  German escape ferry operations still in operation across Seine, near Rouen and points south.  Night flight of RAF bombards Russelsheim. A new system to bring American trucks in convoys with petrol oil lubricants from St. Lô on express road to Chartres (depot from which the armies picked up their supplies) is instituted, known as the Red Ball Express, one of the most successful cogs on the road to victory. About 75% of the soldiers in the Red Ball Express were Afro American soldiers. [Between Aug. 19 and Sept. 16, about 13,000 tons were additionally supplied by air, via Skytrains and B-24s.] 

Aug 26—Gen. Charles de Gaulle leads a victory parade in newly-freed Paris, down the Champs-Élysées.  An estimated 1,000 French citizens and 3,200 Germans were killed during the Battle for Paris. A further 12,800 German troops became POWs.  Gen. Montgomery orders Canadian First Army to clear Pas-de-Calais, the British Second Army to drive into Belgium, and for the U.S. First in support of British drive. Forward element of U.S. 45th Inf Div drives on Lyon as it chases 19th German Army in retreat. Motor torpedo boats PT-511, PT-514 and PT-520 take part in a night engagement (that lasts into the following day) that turns back the last German attempt to reinforce the besieged garrison at Le Havre; the PT boats sink German artillery ferries AFP 98 and AFP 108.  Luftwaffe planes at night, from Holland and Germany, conduct air raid over Paris, painting the sky a bright red in the southeast; 200 people killed, nearly 900 injured.  Fr. troops mop up enemy in Paris.  U.S. Third Army thrusts to the Marne and overruns Chateau-Thierry.  An American aircrew of 8 from a B-24 shot down near Hanover on Aug. 24, before reaching a POW camp by train, (9 had been captured but one was taken to a hospital on the 24th), forced to march through the town of Russelsheim--RR tracks were down--and attacked by a German mob and are beaten to death; bodies left for dead, but 2 survivors testified at war crimes in 1946. The entire German 19th Army has been moving north since circa Aug. 20 crossing the Rhône and with both sides attacking and counterattacking about 4 miles n. of Montelimar.

Aug 27—Gen. Eisenhower arrives in Paris.  Operation Reunion starts, lasts until Sept. 3, whereby 1,163 American flyers were daringly flown out and rescued out of Rumania in 56 B-17s converted into transports.  A victory parade in Toulon as German artillery guns heard in the distance from the military port of Toulon. (Today, it is the principal base of the French Navy.)  U.S. First Army crosses the Marne River. 1,207 B-17’s turned back from Berlin due to weather.  At night, 200 Halifax bombers hit oil installations in Hamburg.  The first 1944 daylight heavy bomber raid on Germany by RAF.  During the night, a German Gen. Richter and 700 of his men captured trying to dash through Montelimar.  LST-327 is damaged by mine, while en route from Cherbourg to Southampton, England.  U.S. sub Guitarro attacks Japanese convoy bound for Coron Bay, sinks merchant tanker No.25 Nanshin Maru, and damages No.3 Nanshin Maru.  U.S sub Stingray lands men and supplies on northwest shore of Luzon.  

Aug 28—In Arabian Sea, U.S. freighter John Barry, en route from Aden to the Persian Gulf, is torpedoed and sunk by German U-859.  Two members of the merchant crew are lost during the abandonment, but 39 of the 41-man merchant complement and the entire 27-man Armed Guard survive.  U.S. Third Army liberates Epernay.   Naval base at Toulon secured by Fr. forces when last of the German garrisons surrender, about 1,880 men captured; the 9-day battle cost 2,700 casualties with a total of 17,000 German POWs. Port of Marseille also falls, cost 1,800 casualties; bagged 11,000 more prisoners; both ports secured weeks ahead of schedule, although in bad shape. 97 V-1s were launched from Holland, but only 4 get through.  British 8th Army and Polish troops gain ground toward Gothic Line.       

Aug 29—Allied commanders turn over the administration of Paris to General Charles de Gaulle and the French Committee for National Liberation.  U.S. Third Army liberates Châlons-sur-Marne.  British armor crosses Seine River at Vernon. Gen. Montgomery and Gen. Eisenhower issue instruction for operations, priority for gas will be given to the North.  High point of Red Ball Express deliveries up to September 6: 89,939 tons, with the greatest 1-day delivery 12,342 tons today; in the first days of the Express, as the front lines nearly ran out of supplies, drivers set out with maps torn out of the pages of the Stars and Stripes newspaper.  Some 15,000 men of the U.S. 28th Inf Div march in large parade through Paris and then continue to the Front.  WW II GI Harold Angle was lucky to not only attend a 75th Anniversary in 2019, he was in the actual 28th Inf Division that marched in Paris in 1944; merci GlobalNews.  Generals Eisenhower and Bradley visited Paris.  U.S. 7th Army liberates Valence and in company of the French First Army advance north through the Rhône Valley from the Riviera beachhead.  Western Allies recognize Polish Home Army as a legal military force. Marine detachments from heavy cruiser Augusta and light cruiser Philadelphia accept the surrender of two German-held islands in Marseille Harbor and disarm the garrisons.  Western Allies end diplomatic meeting at Dumbarton Oaks, first step in formation of the United Nations.  Underground Slovak resistance units rise against the Germans and the indigenous fascist Slovak regime.  Dutch freighter Sanetta and U.S. freighter Benjamin Bourn between them rescue the 66 survivors from the U.S. freighter John Barry, which had been sunk by German submarine U-859 the day before. Japanese merchant cargo ship Koryu Maru is sunk by aircraft, near Kiukiang, China.  U.S. sub Jack sinks Japanese minesweeper W.28 and army cargo ship Mexico Maru n.w. of Menado, Celebes.  

Aug 30—First U.S. Army railway supply trains roll into Paris with food and supplies.  British 2nd Army liberates Rouen. U.S. 3rd Army liberates Reims. U.S. 7th Army liberates Nice on the French Riviera. Start of 3-day strafing campaign by American P-51 pilots result in a record by 15th A.F. as over 200 enemy aircraft destroyed at Reghin, Debrecen, Kecskemet, and Grosswadein, the Eastern Front.  Canadian First Army with Royal Netherlands Brigade cross Seine R.   U.S. 2nd Arm Div makes great gains from Beauvais.  U.S. tanker Jacksonville, steaming in convoy CU 36, is torpedoed by U-482 while en route to Loch Ewe, Scotland; the gasoline cargo explodes, giving little chance for the 49-man merchant complement or the 29-man Armed Guard to abandon the blazing ship, which breaks in twain at the second massive explosion.   

Aug 31—Patton’s spearhead reaches the Meuse River, when the 4th Arm Div races into the town of Commercy seizing the bridge intact before the Germans could detonate the dynamite, the last strategic river crossing before the German borders, and establishes a bridgehead near the town of Verdun, famous site of WWI.  U.S. 90th Inf Div remains in Reims area.  Patton’s spearhead comes to a temporary halt; out of gas.  In the West his troops battling at Brest temporarily suspend operations.  Advance party of WACS arrive in Paris. U.S. 3rd, 36th, and 45th divs battling up the Rhône R. Valley.  Amiens liberated by U.S. 11th Arm Div.  Following the terms of the Romanian armistice, Soviet forces occupy Bucharest, the fourth European capital to be liberated.  British 2nd Army crosses the Somme River.  British Eighth Army penetrates the German Gothic Line in Italy. U.S. Fifth Army crosses the Arno River.

Sept 1—U.S. 2nd Arm, 3rd Arm, 5th Arm divs of First Army drive rapidly on Compiegne, Cambrai and La Capelle. WACS begin pouring into Paris from Normandy and England, by plane and by truck convoy.  Philippine Islands are bombed for the first time since 1942 by 57 “Apache” 5th A.F. bombers.  U.S. 4th Arm and Polish 1st Arm divs make for the Somme R.  Aircraft, warships and artillery pound Ile de Cezembre, off St Malo.  U.S. Army Communiqué announces that the number of prisoners taken in southern France campaign had amounted to over 55,000 German troops, with 35,000 captured by the FFI.  U.S. 36th “Texas” Div surrounds city of Lyon. U.S. Coast Guard cutter Northland locates German weather ship Kehlingen off Great Koldeyey Is. Greenland, but Kehlingen scuttles ship to avoid capture.  Off Toulon YMS-21 is sunk by a mine. 

Sept 2—Belgium frontier crossed by U.S. 1st Army, as 82nd Reconnaissance Battalion crosses border at 9:30 a.m., near Tournai.  Belgium sits on a map n.e. of France, before reaching Germany; vibrant happiness projected 75 years ago just as today, it conveys a modern fabric of society.   Canadian troops also cross Belgium frontier.  U.S. 5th Army liberates Pisa, Italy.  Allied armor units from the Mediterranean make 34-mile advance in the Rhône Valley; as of date 190,565 troops, 41,534 vehicles and 219,205 tons of supplies have been put ashore through the French Riviera beaches. Two chemists of the secret Manhattan Project are killed after being sprayed with highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid while attempting to unclog a uranium enrichment device at the Philadelphia Navy yard.  For the most part, U.S. 3rd Army still immobilized for lack of fuel.  U.S. sub Finback while on patrol near Chichi Jima rescues Navy Lieutenant (jg) George H.W. Bush, of VT 51, about 600 miles s. of Tokyo; his two crew members did not survive; Bush will eventually become the 41st President of the United States.  Ile de Cézembre (St Malo) finally surrenders, to U.S 83rd Inf Div.  Home Front movie Janie released, about a free-spirited bobby-soxer teenage girl living in a small town. I swear it is v funny especially the part about the party.  Directed by Academy Award winner Michael CurtizA lost treasure of a film. Relatively unheralded today, Wake Is. bombarded by 3 U.S. cruisers and carrier planes, isolated Japanese outpost, but big news in 1944 because it was taken by the Japanese shortly after Pearl Harbor was bombed in 1941 and it was U.S. territory. 

Sept 3—British Guards Arm Div liberates Brussels, capital of Belgium.  Brussels parade celebrates 75th Anniversary Liberation A 23-year-old army scout Pvt James W Carroll of Alabama, enters Belgium village of Peruwelz on his Harley-Davidson in the midst of retreating Germans and technically becomes the first GI in this village; Peruwelz is liberated.  U.S. First Army liberates Tournai, Belgium.  So how do you pronounce Tournai?  U.S. 3rd Arm Div liberates Mons, France.  1st Free French Div, U.S. 7th Army and Fr Resistance liberate Lyon, France.  Airfield near Reims is sufficiently repaired to receive cargo planes.  U.S. 8th A.F. Thunderbolt squadron led by Maj. Frederick Lefebre and Lt. E. Reinhart destroy a twenty-mile-long vehicle convoy, marking one of the largest in the war, retreating from east Belgium outside Louvain.  U.S. 15th A.F. Communiqué reports destruction of 82 locos, 154 motor vehicles, 190 oil tankers, 110 box cars in Morava Valley, Yugoslavia.  21st Army Group commander Montgomery orders Br 2nd Army to drive speedily to the Rhine, but they encounter rough terrain with myriad water crossings.  The 68th and last transport of Dutch Jews, which included Anne Frank, left for Auschwitz. 

Sept 3-4—U.S. First Army closes Mons pocket, 25,000 enemy netted.  British 8th Army suffers tremendous losses in Gemmano-Croce, Italy.   U.S. 15th A.F. begins “Rat Week” knocking out bridges all along the Eastern Front.

Sept 4—Antwerp reached by British 11th Arm Div.  Polish 2nd Arm Div drives on St. Omer.  U.S. 3rd Army opens new attack to outflank Nancy.  The last torpedo boats stationed in France and Belgium of the German Navy evacuate bases to the Netherlands.  Japanese troops capture U.S. air-base in Lingling, China. AGAIN? Stars and Stripes reveals the break up of a large Sicilian counterfeiting ring in Rome.

Sept 5—British 2nd Army enters Ghent, but enemy continues to hold out in n. sectors for some days.  U.S. 3rd Army semi-refueled crosses the Meuse R.  Field Marshall von Rundstedt returns as Commander-in-Chief German Army.  Rainbow Island released in Technicolor.  Canadian 1st Army reaches Calais area.   U.S. sub Albacore sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Shingetsu Maru n. of Muroto Saki.  Helsinki is liberated.  German troops evacuate areas n. of Florence, Italy.  German troops evacuate Finland.  British sub HMS Tantivy sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Shiretoko Maru off Sumatra.  Off southern France invasion beaches, French destroyer Le Malin discovers presence of something new: sneaky underwater German manned torpedoes, and opens fire; destroyer Ludlow joins Le Malin in dropping depth charges, destroy three torpedoes and capture the crews.  "Mad Tuesday" 65,000 Dutch Nazi collaborators flee like crazy to Germany.  U.S 9th Army becomes operational in Brittany. Aero-engine plant, rail yards and oil refinery in SE Germany struck by 670 bombers and 429 fighters of 8th A.F.  USSR declares war on Bulgaria.   

Sept 6—Two V-2 missiles launched at Paris, but they misfire and never fly. Bill Downs CBS War Correspondent reports from Belgium and the Netherlands.

Sept 7—U.S. 1st Army fights its way into Liège, Belgium.  Soviet spearheads do not move into Warsaw, as the city fighting enters seventh week.  Through the Polish Red Cross, a short cease fire is obtained in Warsaw, several thousand civilians allowed to leave.  From bases in China, 108 B-29s hit the Showa Steel Works in Ansan, Manchuria.

Sept 7-8—U.S. carrier planes destroy Japanese planes at Yap and Palau.  U.S. sub Paddle torpedoes transport Shinyo Maru carrying American and Filipino POWs; about 667 prisoners were lost out of 750; the Japanese had thrown grenades into the holds of the ship and those that escaped and floated at sea were being shot or wacked on the head with Japanese sabers, but 83 survivors swam to a nearby beach and were aided by friendly Filipinos; 1 died shortly; 1 survivor was Marine Sgt. O. Clem survivor of Bataan

Sept 8—V-2s fired at London and Paris. For the first time in history, the Germans employed rocket-propelled supersonic missiles as weapons.  Terror campaign against humanity begins; the missile arrives before the sound of the V-2 passage is heard.   These supersonic V-2 rockets represented an advanced stage of technology in humanity.  The public remains in the dark for two months. Age of supersonic flight enters the pages of history. Allies liberate Brussels.  U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff directed MacArthur and Nimitz to take Leyte and the Surigao Strait area beginning December 20.

Sept 8-9—U.S. 1st Army liberates Liège (about 11mins, too bad there is no sound.).  Red Army enters Sofia.   Musical Movieland released in Technicolor.  Allies sink Italian liner Rex near Trieste, Italy.  U.S. sub Bashaw sinks Japanese transport Yanagigawa Maru near Mindanao.  U.S. sub Spadefish sinks Japanese transport Shokei Maru, army cargo ship Shinten Maru and merchant cargo ships Nichiman Maru and Nichian Maru.

Sept 9—U.S. sub Bang sinks Japanese transport Tokiwasan Maru s. of Japan.  U.S. Seal sinks Japanese army cargo ship Shonan Maru in Sea of Okhotsk, n. of Etorofu, Kurils.  U.S. sub Queenfish sinks Japanese transport Toy_ka Maru and merchant passenger/cargo ship Manshu Maru and damages torpedo boat Manazuru n.w. of Luzon.

Sept 10—U.S. 1st Army secures small bridgehead across Moselle River.   U.S. Third Army secures small bridgehead at Crévéchamps and Bayon, and liberates the capital of Luxembourg, Luxembourg City.  Grand Duchess Charlotte stated that their love of freedom was “stronger than ever now that the victorious armies of the United States and their Allies have entered the liberated motherland.”  Churchill secretly arrives in Canada by the Queen Mary.  Eisenhower makes a secret visit to Brussels.  U.S. motor torpedo boat PT-206 in Mediterranean gives chase to German explosive boat unit consisting of a control boat and two drones; one of the latter is destroyed.  U.S. sub Sunfish sinks Japanese merchant tanker Chihaya Maru east of Quelpart Is. The Mysterious Traveler on radio, “No One On the Line” aired Sept. 10, 1944.

Sept 11—Seven synthetic oil plants and two other targets hit by 1,145 8th A.F. bombers, and for the first time since May, Luftwaffe rises in great strength.  Over Schwarzheide, east Germany, a mix-up compounds matters, when U.S. fighter protection arrives late, and 14 U.S. heavies shot down; when they do arrive, 32 enemy planes shot down.  U.S. Third Army crosses the Moselle R. and enters Germany, probes border just north of Trier, near Stalzemberg.   As of date 2,168,307 troops and 460,745 vehicles have landed via Normandy beaches.  British patrols, Scottish 15th Div, cross Dutch border, north of Leopoldsburg.  Dijon is liberated by Fr. 1st Div.  The start of the Quebec Conference (second Quebec Conference) by Roosevelt and Churchill; the agenda principally concerns the role the Royal Navy will play in the Pacific War.  Greek para-military fighters under Georgios Poulos murder 120 civilians in the city of Giannitsa, Greece in the name of an anti-communist operation.  Bulgarian communist leader Georgi Dimitrov ordered, from Moscow, to create the People's Court.  U.S. sub Finback sinks army cargo ship Hassho Maru and merchant No.2 Hak_n Maru n. of Chichi Jima.

Sept 11-12—Night raid against the city of Darmstadt by RAF Bomber Command erases it from map, over 10,000 die in the resulting fire storm despite new bombing techniques.

Sept 12—888 bombers and over 500 escorts of the U.S. 8th A.F. attack German synthetic oil plants; thanks Tom Dozier.  V-2 rockets hit Chrysler plant in s.w. London; 8 killed, significant damage.  U.S. 5th Army launches major offensive in n. Italy (Appenine Mtns, Gothic Line, which contained extensive minefields and fortifications in the Po Valley.)  German garrisons evacuate Greek islands in the eastern Mediterranean. U.S. carriers begin operations against Japanese shipping and airfields in the Visayas.  Planes from all three carrier groups pound enemy installations on Cebu and shipping offshore. Ensign Thomas C. Tillar, USNR, a pilot from Hornet, is rescued by Filipinos after his F6F ditches off Apit Is, off the s.w. coast of Leyte.  Before Tillar is recovered by SOC from heavy cruiser Wichita, he learns from his rescuers that the size of the Japanese garrison on Leyte is negligible.  That fact, when combined with the lack of aerial opposition encountered PLUS the few airfields that exist on Leyte and Samar, prompts Admiral Halsey (Commander Third Fleet) to recommend that the planned attack on Yap be abandoned and more importantnly, that the date of the landings on Leyte be advanced from 20 December to 20 October 1944.  U.S. sub Growler sinks Japanese destroyer Shikinami 240 miles s. of Hong Kong, and escort vessel Hirado 250 miles east of Hainan Is.  U.S. sub Pampanito sinks merchant passenger/cargo ship Kachidoki Maru (ex-U.S. passenger liner President Harrison carried some 900 British pow’s) and tanker Zuih_ Maru. U.S. sub Pipefish sinks Japanese auxiliary vessel No.7 Hakutetsu Maru off Shiono Misaki, Japan.  U.S. sub Sealion sinks Japanese transport Nankai Maru and merchant passenger/cargo ship Rakuyo Maru in South China Sea, east of Hainan Island.

Sept 13—U.S. First Army crosses the Albert Canal.  British troops cross the Meuse-Escaut Canal.  French Navy enters Toulon harbor.  Over 700 bombers U.S. 8th A.F. pulverize synthetic oil plants in Germany (3rd day in a row).  Soviet troops reached the Slovakian border.  Liberators completely destroy the IG Farben chemical plant near Ausertz.  U.S. captures Roetgen, Germany.  Destroyer Warrington is sunk by hurricane, 175 miles east-southeast of Great Abaco Island, Bahamas Islands.

Sept 14—U.S. Navy planes pound Japanese bases at Panay and Negros.  Red Air Force drops some supplies into Warsaw, without parachutes.  Polish 1st Army and Soviet troops, 1st Belorussian Front, capture Praga, a Warsaw suburb. British forces liberate Maastrich—is the first Dutch city to be liberated—and Gulpen, and Meerssen.  800 Gypsy children, more than 100 of whom were boys between 9 and 14 years of age, were executed at Auschwitz Concentration Camp in occupied Poland.  Worst storm since 1938 sweeps the Atlantic East Coast; five ships sunk; over 350 people killed; winds over 100 mph.  Three German V-2 rockets strike Britain; one hits the center of Walthamstow, London, 7 die; the resulting crater was 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep. 

Sept 15—Nancy is liberated by Patton’s Third Army, all roads heavily mined. U.S. Army and Marines invade Morotai and Peleliu islands.  U.S. 1st Army breaks into Siegfried line near Aachen, Germany.  U.S. 3rd Army reaches the Moselle.  Brazilian soldiers of the IV Corps, 5th Army enter the line in northern Italy, to advance through the mountain ridges of Monte Castello.

Sept 16—Approximately 18,000 German troops with 754 officers commanded by General B. H. Elster traveled northeastward from the Biscayne Bay and surrender to the U.S. 83rd Inf Div near the Beaugency bridge on the Loire, s.w. of Orléans; not Sept. 17. Night of 15-16. Polish 1st Army breaches Vistula R. and seize bridgeheads in Warsaw. 

Sept 17—Operation Market Garden commences in s. Holland; the plan called for the airborne troops to be relieved by British troops, but they were left stranded; over 6,000 out of 10,000 Allied troops are captured by ther time Market Garden ends.  A 1974 book by Cornelius Ryan, "A Bridge Too Far," was based on this operation and was made into a 1977 film.  On the Italian Front, U.S. 85th Inf Div captures Monte Altuzzo, Indian 4th Div attacks San Marino, after the German 278th Inf Div had occupied that neutral country.  U.S. Navy sub USS Barb torpedoes and sinks the Japanese aircraft carrier Unyo in the South China Sea. There are over 761 survivors. 

Sept 18—110 bombers of the 8th A.F. are allowed to drop 1,284 canisters of arms, food and medical supplies (by parachute) against strong wind over Warsaw, only 30% reaches Polish Home Army. Counterstrike by Hitler’s First Army—the most powerful of Germany’s Western Front once more—and Fifth Panzer Army is initiated against Patton’s troops at Lunéville, France, forming the start of the greatest tank battles the U.S. has witnessed in the ETO.  U.S. Ninth Army captures Brest.  Pluto oil system begins pumping oil to port of Cherbourg.  Eisenhower establishes Allied Military Government for Germany.

Sept 19—A fierce 3-month battle begins at Huertgen Forest on the Belgium-German frontier.  Near Lunéville, France in heavy fog, the 111th German Brigade opens an attack on U.S.lines, but at a cost of 50 tanks, and driven off.  Matched against the U.S. 4th Arm Div were the veteran 11th Panzer Div with beat up tanks and the 111th and 113th Panzer Brigades with fresh crews and the newest tanks, but no combat experience; fierce battles continue for 4 days between all armor near Arracourt.  Luftwaffe bombs Eindhoven: 200 killed.

Sept 20—British Guards Arm Division and 82th Airborne Division have taken Nijmegen. British 8th Army enters San Marino.  U.S. petitions Soviet authorities to continue U.S. air drop over Warsaw; denied.  Frenchman's Creek released in Technicolor.

Sept 21—Virtually all Allied air operations on Western Front cease because of bad weather except near Driel, Holland where 750 Polish paratroopers make a drop.  U.S. 7th Army crosses Moselle R. and the Meuse R.  15th A.F. B-24 Liberators destroy gigantic Baja railroad bridge across Danube, 90 miles s. of Budapest.  Excluding probable, 405 Imperial Army and Navy airplanes are destroyed in the Philippines by U.S. Navy airplanes and over 21 Japanese vessels destroyed in Subic and Manila Bays.   British 8th Army liberates Rimini, Italy, actually the Greek 3rd Mtn Div, attached to the 1st Canadian Div, with the New Zealand 20th Arm Div in support.  The last British paratroopers at bridge of Arnhem surrender; story kept under wraps at the time.

Sept 22—As of date over 380,000 Allied troops have landed through French Riviera.  U.S. 65th Infantry Regiment, consisting of Puerto Ricans, arrives in France.   U.S. First Army goes on the defensive along most of its line.  Fog lifts over Western Front, P-47’s support Patton by destroying and damaging sizable German armor formations in Juvelize-Arracourt.  XIX TAC of U.S. 9th A.F. destroy 120 vehicles and cut 21 R.R. lines. First RaLa test with a radioactive source is secretly performed at Los Alamos. Boulogne secured by Canadian 1st Army.  Soviet forces seize Baltic prize of Tallinn. End of Summer. {Note: Autumnal Equinox in 2019 is Sept. 23, in 1944 it was a date earlier.} 

Sept 23—Allies sink Italian liner Taranto near La Spezia, Italy. Radio Tokyo reports Premier J. Laurel of the Philippines has declared war on the United States as a result of air attacks on the islands.  Ulithi Atoll is invaded; secured by 323rd Regiment of 81st Inf Div; becomes a huge secret naval anchorage on the Carolines; O casualties but, the daughter of King Ueg received mortal wound. The island was abandoned by the Japanese the month before. Battleship West Virginia reaches Pearl Harbor and rejoins the Pacific Fleet, was under reconstruction since Dec. 7, 1941. Republic of San Marino declares war on Germany. German U-859 is sunk by British submarine HMS Trenchant off Penang, Malaya.  U.S. sub Apogon sinks Japanese guardboat No.6 Choyo Maru east of Honshu.

Sept 24—Germans launch counterattack around Lunéville-Arracourt in extremely bad weather, principally hitting CCA of 4th Arm at Chateau-Salins.  

Sept 25—Recounterattack mounted with reinforced German Ghost Division under cover of rainstorm, veteran U.S. 4th and 6th Arm Divisions hold around Lunéville-Arracourt. Final evacuation of some 2,000 Allies from Arnhem.  Warsaw situation, frantic and grave.  The Germans ruthlessly suppressing the rebellion.   Soviet troops surround and disarm Polish detachments serving with the Red Army, e. of the Vistula, Warsaw. The gains of the 16th over the west bank were lost due to intense German counterattacks.

Sept 26—394 B-17s bombard Borgward tank and truck plants in Breman.  The Council of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration ends its second session in Montreal, and allocates $50 million to Italy, primarily for medical supplies.  This is the first extension of assistance by the United Nations to a former enemy country.  The largest nuclear reactor, the B reactor, goes critical at the Hanford Site.

Sept 27—Hitler recounterattacks again at Arracourt-Lunéville.  The 445th Bomb Group suffers the greatest loss of any 8th A.F. unit in a single air mission: 25 are shot out of the sky, 5 more crash on landing.  This means 300 Americans did not return to England.  U.S. sub Flasher sinks Japanese transport ship Ural Maru. German garrisons evacuate western Greece so that they would not be cut off in the Balkans by the advancing Soviet Army.  Greenwich Village premieres in Technicolor in NYC.   G.I Journal, a radio show inserted into history and filmed as "Strictly G.I." produced by the Armed Forces Radio Service but on film produced by The Army-Navy Screen Magazine.  At its peak, the Armed Forces Radio Service was generating about 20 hours of original programming each week (thanks historycomestolife for providing an educational tidbit).

Sept 28—RAF bombers drop 909 tons of bombs on Kaiserslautern, Germany, destroying 36% of the town. U.S. sub Bonefish sinks Japanese tanker Anjo Maru in South China Sea.

Sept 29—U.S. Third Army and XIX TAC 9th A.F. fight back counterattack under full power, Nazis forced to retreat from Lunéville-Arracourt sectors.  Canadian troops captured the last remaining gun batteries in the Calais area, which had been hammering at Dover since the start of the war.  U.S. sub Narwhal rescues 81 Allied survivors of the Shinyo Maru in the Philippines.  Under SS-Major Reder, retreating Germans began a 6-day massacre of some 1,000 women, children and elderly in the village of Marzabotto, Italy.  PB4Ys sink German submarine U-863 in South Atlantic. 

Sept 30—The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, composed of Japanese-Americans from the mainland and Hawaii, disembarks on the 2,600 year old port of Marseille, France and joins the U.S. Seventh Army; 442nd motto, Go For Broke (merci armylawjag).  In the 7th Army sector, U.S. 45th Inf Div and Fr 2nd Arm attack Rambervillers.  Mission Bay sinks U-1062, the last U-boat sunk in the Atlantic by a U.S. carrier battle group.  German garrison in Calais surrenders to Canadian troops.   Balikpapen “Ploesti of the East Indies” first time bombed.  Angaur, Ngesebus, Kongauru and Peleliu declared occupied; Japanese that were killed, over 10,000, U.S. Marines killed 1252 and 5274 wounded. On Peleliu, some Japanese survivors refuse to surrender.   Soviet troops cross the Danube R. through the Transylvanian Alps at Turnu-Severin.  

Oct 1—Battle of Aachen starts, U.S. First Army begins siege of Aachen, Germany; pre-war pop: 165,000bigger than El Paso, Texas—Gene Roddenberry, science fiction writer and creator of Star Trek was born in El Paso and was a B-17 pilot in the Pacific; received a Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal. Those white triangle-type blocks were called dragon's teeth—part of the Siegfried Line.  U.S. sub Cabrilla attacks a Japanese convoy in the South China Sea and sinks tankers Kyokuho Maru and Zuiyo Maru.  U.S. sub Trepang  sinks Japanese supply ship Takunan Maru.  U.S. sub Hammerhead sinks merchant Higane Maru n. of Borneo. 

Oct 2—After killing men, women, and children without mercy, Warsaw uprising ends with 15,000 treated as soldiers under the Geneva Convention and sent to POW camps, total of 150,000-250,000 Polish Resistance persons died; German losses were 16,000 killed or missing, 9,000 wounded, over 15,000 buildings destroyed, 340 trucks, cars and 310 tanks, self-propelled artillery, armored cars destroyed; 14 libraries including the National Library, 64 high schools, the Warsaw University, 25 churches and 923 historical buildings were destroyed and by war's end, block after block will be leveled. U.S. sub Aspro sinks Japanese cargo ship Azuchisan Maru in So. China Sea, w. of Luzon.  U.S. sub Pomfret sinks transports Tsuyama Maru and Makassar Maru, s. of Formosa.  Japanese army vessel Ryochi Maru is sunk by aircraft off Bantayan Island, n. of Cebu.  LST-129LST-278, and LST-661 damaged by storm, Palau.

Oct 3—The first Messerschmitt Me 262 fighter unit, with 30 lethal jets, was established at Achmer and Hesepe near Osnabrück, Germany led by ace Maj. Walter Nowotny.  U.S. 8th A.F. visits motor vehicles plant at Gaggenau, and knocks it out for two months. U.S. Third Army begins a 10-day attack on fortress at Driant, Metz.  A V-2 hits the Hellesdon Golf Course near Norwich, England, damage minimal; 1 acre of sugar beets damaged.  USAAF aircraft sink Japanese merchant No.14 Nanshin Maru off Zamboanga. U.S. destroyer Shelton is sunk by Japanese submarine RO-41 off Morotai.  Destroyer escort Richard M. Rowell, unaware of the proximity of friendly submarines, accidentally sinks Seawolf, which is transporting U.S. Army personnel to the e. coast of Samar.  Destroyer escort Samuel S. Miles sinks Japanese submarine I-177, 60 miles north-northeast of Angaur, Palau; an archipelago of over 500 islands.  Destroyer Niblack destroys a MAS boat, damages 3 in San Remo, Italy, harbor, and bombards Oneglia harbor.  Then after receiving fire from German 88s, she shifts target to those guns and knocks them out.

Oct 4—Large German counterattack around Aachen sector halted by U.S. 1st Army.  PBYs sink Japanese cargo ship Tateishi Maru and auxiliary sailing vessels Kigen Maru and Kiku Maru, Jolo, Philippines. U.S. sub Flasher sinks Japanese army cargo ship Taibin Maru in So. China Sea n. of Luzon. LCT-579 is sunk by mine off Palau.  British sub HMS Rover damages Japanese auxiliary sailing vessel Mie Maru. A German V-2 rocket hits Rockland St. Mary 6 miles s.e. of Norwich, England.  It hits the village school directly, injuring 2 adults and 34 children, and the blast damaged 23 houses nearby. It was the worst attack on the Norwich region during the war.  All V-rocket attacks still censored to the public. British troops land at Crete.  U.S. troops from Coast Guard Eastwind capture a German weather station at Little Koldeyey, Greenland. Anti-fascist partisan army, the ELAM, led by Communists, controls much of Greece's countryside; ELAM soldiers number about 50,000.

Oct 4-9—Baseball World Series, St. Louis Cardinals and St. Louis Browns at Sportsman's Park; third and final time in World Series history in which both teams from same city had the same home field. The Cardinals won.  Between Sept 25-Oct 5, final stage of the Japanese resistance on the Palaus Islands added 336 U.S. killed and 1707 wounded; the Japanese death toll on Angaur and Peleliu up to the 5th: 2755. Hold-outs remain in caves.

Oct 5—Pluto to Cherbourg abandoned.

Oct 6—German recounterstrikes with reserves at Aachen but is halted by U.S. 1st Army.  Dr. Ernest Charlton, GE scientist, announces X-ray machine that can take pictures through a foot of steel has been perfected.  U.S. sub Whale sinks transports Akane Maru and Kinugasa Maru in the South China Sea.  British sub HMS Tally Ho sinks Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 2, 110 nautical miles w. of Penang, Malaya.  U.S. sub Seahorse sinks Japanese Coast Defense Vessel No. 21n.w. of Cape Bojeador, Luzon. Dutch sub Zwaardvisch sinks German submarine U-168 in Java Sea.  8th A.F. deals a death blow on Arado aircraft assembly plant at Neubrandenburg.  First Air Force Night fighters land on Chengtu, China.  

Oct 7—The first and only time in the war a pilot scores two jet victories in one mission: pilot Lt.Urban Drew in a P-51 hits two Me 262s over Achmer Airfield.  In South China Sea, U.S. subs Cabrilla and Baya sink a transport each.  Flying Fortresses hit German oil centers and find enemy resistance surprising over Germany, in fierce air combat the 8th A.F. looses forty-one aircraft; Germany over 20.  Three famous WW II popular songs connected to the air corps: Bing Crosby sings The Army Air Corps and The Bombardier’s SongComing in on a Wing and a Prayer.  B-17s land on Letisko Tri Duby airfield bringing supplies and OSS operatives, led by naval Lieutenant James H. Green, to aid the anti-Nazi resistance in Slovakia and bring out 15 downed Allied pilots. German oil installations hit by U.S. 8th AF.  In Auschwitz, Jewish prisoners go on revolt and escape, but revolt was put down. Navy beats Penn State 55-14.

Oct 8—Elements of U.S. Ninth Army reached Aachen, Germany.   Project Pigeon/Project Orcon cancelled, a U.S. Navy secret project working with the Univ. of Minn. to design and deploy missiles piloted by pigeons.  Debut of "The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet" on CBS Radio.  Czechoslovakian 1st Armored Brigade deployed to the British 2nd Army in France.  U.S. sub Hoe sinks army transport Kohoku Maru in South China Sea. 

Oct 9U.S. sub Croaker sinks freighter Shinki Maru.  U.S. sub Sawfish sinks merchant tanker Tachibana Maru.  Churchill and Stalin meet in Moscow.  Refit U.S. carrier Yorktown departs Puget Sound.  Initial secret plan prepared by Gen. Alfred Jodl, Chief of the Operations Staff of the German Armed Forces High Command and deputy to Field Marshal Keitel, for a counterattack in Belgium given to Hitler, later adopted as Wacht Am Rhein, ie. the Battle of the Bulge.

Oct 10—U.S. carriers Franklin and Wasp launch strikes against Okinawa. 24-hour surrender ultimatum sent to Aachen, Hitler refuses.  U.S. Navy carrier strike force TF38 destroys 93 airplanes and 12 ships of more than 500 tons near Manila. U.S. sub Barb sinks transport Gokuku Maru n.w. of Hirado Jima, Kyushu.   U.S. sub Lapon sinks transport Ejiri Maru in South China Sea w. of Luzon.  The first Black-American armored unit to battle in the ETO (the 761st) arrives in France.  British troops capture Corinth, Greece.  German Army Group E starts its final retreat from Greece. German Army puts down the anti-Tiso rebellion in Slovakia; Josef Tiso was pro-Nazi, led Slovakia and was a Roman Catholic priest, not to be confused with Josip B. Tito who fought the Nazis in Yugoslavia and led his country to independence from the Soviet Union. 

Oct 11—Heavy air and artillery bombardment on Aachen.  U.S. sub Tang sinks merchant cargo ships Joshu Go and Oita Maru in Formosa Strait.  Soviet troops capture Cluj, capital of Transylvania.  An American Romance premieres in Technicolor in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Oct 12—U.S. 3rd Fleet, as part of a 5-day campaign, delivers 1,378 aircraft attack on the installations on Formosa (Taiwan), regarded as the strongest and best-developed base south of Japan, 396 enemy aircraft and 70 ships destroyed; almost 50 U.S. planes are shot down.  U.S. Home Front built aircraft carriers Intrepid, Hornet, Franklin, Lexington, Bunker Hill, Wasp, Hancock, Enterprise, and Essex, plus light carriers Independence, Princeton, Belleau Wood, Cowpens, Monterey, LangleyPrinceton, Cabot, and San Jacinto compose U.S. 3rd Fleet, alongside battleships Alabama, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Washington and 17 cruisers and 63 destroyers.  From China, first B-29’s land on Guam.  U.S. sub Ray sinks transport Toko Maru off Mindoro.  British sub HMS Strongbow sinks cargoship Manryo Maru in Strait of Malacca.  Light cruiser Miami shoots down 2 Japanese aircraft off Okinawa.  Port of Boulogne opens for service. U.S. 92nd Inf Div the "Buffalo Soldiers" hit the Gothic Line in n. Italy.   British airborne troops land in Greece and advance on Athens.  German troops evacuate city.  Liberation of Athens breaks with a huge crowd and parade, but today, it and the end of WW II goes almost unnoticed in Greece.

Oct 13—Germans launch first V- bomb against Antwerp, which, next to London, becomes the primary target for these weapons.  U.S. sub Bergall sinks merchant tanker Shinshu Maru off Nha Trang, French Indochina.  Carrier Franklin is damaged when a kamikaze slides across her flight deck and crashes nearby.  Heavy cruiser Canberra is damaged by aerial torpedo.  Main U.S. amphibious force departs Hollandia sails for Philippines.

Oct 14—103 B-29’s strike Okayama; 0 losses, 50 Japanese airplanes destroyed.  U.S. sub Bonefish sinks merchantman Fushimi Maru in South China Sea.  U.S. sub Dace sinks merchant tankers Eikyo Maru and Nittetsu Maru off N. Borneo. U.S. carrier Hancock, light cruiser Reno, destroyer Cassin Young, light cruiser Houston, sustain damages by Japanese attacks. U.S. sub Angler sinks transport Nanrei Maru.  WASP pilot Ann G. Baumgartner of Georgia test flies the Bell YP-59A at Wright Field, and becomes the first American woman to fly a jet aircraft.  Carrier Saratoga and destroyer escort Howard F. Clark damaged in collision during maneuvers off Oahu.  British sub HMS Sturdy sinks Japanese Communication Vessel No.128 in Gulf of Boni.  Army beats Pitt in football 69-7.

Oct 15-17—At the foot of the Vosges Mtns in e. France is Bruyères, surrounded on 3 sides by forested hills. A cluster of 4 prominent hills stick-out geographically n.n.e of the little village.  U.S. 7th Army begins drive to clear woods n. of Bruyères; 45th Inf Div hits northern sector, 36th western sector with 143rd Battalion along road from Fays.  The 442nd Regimental Combat Team (RCT) composed of Japanese-Americans spearheaded, and on the 18th liberated  Bruyères.  Hungary's ruler, Horthy, asks for a non-aggression treaty with the Soviet Union.  He is seized by German commandos. German army occupies Budapest. Count Szalasi becomes prime minister.  Adolf Eichmann arrives in Budapest and orders 50,000 able-bodied Jews to be marched to Germany, on foot, to serve as laborers. 

Oct 16—U.S. Liberators and Mitchells raid Japanese shipping in Hong Kong Harbor and Mindanao Harbor.  Nasty typhoon hits Philippines.  Field Marshal Montgomery halts offensive operations except those to primarily open Antwerp port.  104th Inf Div aids British in opening port of Antwerp.  For past 3 days, U.S. sustains heavy casualties in battle over Aachen, Germany's most westerly city.  U.S. 5th Army begins another phase of attack toward Bologna. Soviet troops cross German border into East Prussia.

Oct 17-18—500 U.S. Rangers of Col. H. Mucci, 6th Ranger Battalion, tear apart Japanese radio-radar broadcasting stations at the entrance of Leyte Gulf, night is calm no typhoon.  The Rangers proceeded to erect navigation lights for the amphibious transports to follow three days later.

Oct 17-21—Allied aircraft shoot down over 90 aircraft in air over the Philippines.

Oct 18—U.S. Navy ships begin to pound Leyte beach areas.  Russians cross border into Czechoslovakia.  Greek Prime Minister, George Papandreou, arrives in Athens.  USS Yorktown arrives at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

Oct 19— The 442nd, mainland Nisei-Americans and also Hawaiians of Japanese ancestry, hit the line stretched some 90 miles across the Vosges Mountains eastern France (great information by John Suzuki; follows the historic trail.)  The 442nd Regimental Combat Team (3mins actual vets), who fought their way into Bruyères (2.56min ceremony).  It included the 100th Battalion of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii; reflections of an untold story of a brave Hawaiian.  Peliliu Island declared secured.  Irish Eyes Are Smiling premieres in Technicolor in Los Angeles. Nazis evacuate Belgrade. Hollywood star Marlene Dietrich at the Front. As of date, over 3,000 WACS are in France.  The Transportation Corps shortly sent picked personnel from the United States to form a traffic regulating group entirely composed of WACS; many of the map tracings for routing combat supplies were made by this group. The Signal Corps organized an all-WAC battalion, composed of switchboard teams, message center teams, and teletype teams. This could not be called a WAC battalion because its tables called for combat equipment, and WACS were noncombatants; Signal Corps authorities therefore called it the % 3341st Signal Service Battalion, with the % mark indicating, to the initiate, WACS.  WAC telephone operators worked French switchboards abandoned by the German army; office workers operated with captured German office supplies; cooks and mess sergeants assumed supervision of French cooks and waitresses in the various messes; and the WACS themselves moved into and gradually filled a number of hotels in Paris.  German Army in Greece and Yugoslavia evacuate to avoid a total cut-off by Russian advance.  Adolf Hitler ordered the complete and total destruction of the city of Warsaw, Poland.  U.S. Navy announces that black women would be allowed into the WAVES. 

Oct 20—After a two-day bombardment on Leyte Is., Philippines, the first of 132,000 U.S. troops of U.S. Sixth Army and 1,528 Marines storm 25 miles of beaches. Some 3,000 Filipino guerrillas aided MacArthur. Volcanic Leyte and a fantastic video bhistorical Filipina Pea; my deep gratitude.  Leyte, some 115 miles long and 15-45 miles wide, has a heavily forested mountain range.  The invasion convoy consisted of 750 transports and landing craft, supported by a 700 ship armada.  Total invasion force​ about 425,000 men; video about 7 mins, my gratitude to Don Tiburcio.  Two GI's from the 24th Inf Div raise the U.S. and Philippine flags on the beach around 10 a.m.  Gen. Douglas MacArthur lands with the 3rd beachhead wave, steps onto the beach and makes his celebrated return “People of the Philippines.  I have returned!  By the grace of Almighty God, our forces stand again on Philippine soil, soil consecrated in the blood of our two people.  We have come, dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control….”  He then said, “the hour of your redemption is here.”  Japanese shore batteries damage destroyer Bennion.  Escort carrier Sangamon, light cruiser Honolulu, salvage vessel Preserver damaged in invasion.  Moreover, Tokyo seemed to accept reports from their pilots that they had sunk many Allied ships, later exaggerated to 11 U.S. carriers and some 1,200 aircraft.  Admiral Kurita’s battleship force reaches Brunei Bay, Borneo; 789 miles from Leyte.  U.S. sub Hammerhead sinks transport Oyo Maru and army cargo ship Ugo Maru, off Borneo.  U.S. 88th Inf Div captures Monte Grande (near Bologna) and then everything stalls in the mtns of Italy.  Belgrade, capital of Yugoslavia freed.  The Climax premieres in Technicolor in both Boston and San Francisco.  Gen. Douglas MacArthur and officers on board USS Nashville; on MacArthur's right is Philippine President Sergio Osmeña returning to the Philippines; some 2,000 Filipino natives literally walked into the American lines following the invasion of Leyte, pitifully starving, some had not eaten for two or three days and were in bad condition.  U.S. forces had more than adequate supplies and food, and in a story rarely told, the Filipinos were right away supplied with food.    

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